Passover & the Feast of Unleavened Bread

Passover & the Feast of Unleavened Bread

The Biblical feasts were designed to be shadow pictures of the Messiah (Colossians 2:17) who is the manifestation of God’s love (John 3:16).  They are yearly wedding rehearsals for the bride to keep them in His cycles of righteousness.  The feasts were designed to be outwards signs of His Word to the world.  The Word of God became flesh and dwelt among us, He is the fulfillment of these sabbaths.  The Word is the character/name of God (Revelation 19:13; Matthew 12:18-21 – Isaiah 42:1-4; Revelation 14:1; 22:4; Deuteronomy 6:6-8), which is love (1 John 4:8).  Built into the feasts/sabbaths is the will of God, the plan of salvation for mankind, not their condemnation (2 Peter 3:9; 1 Timothy 2:4).

Passover points to the death and resurrection of Messiah Jesus, the manifestation of God’s love (John 3:16).

Joh 3:16  For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life.

Joh 15:13  Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends.

Joh 13:1  Now before the feast of the passover, when Jesus knew that his hour was come that he should depart out of this world unto the Father, having loved his own which were in the world, he loved them unto the end.

Unleavened Bread pictures purity, which is the nature of Messiah.  God is pure, God is love.

1Jn 3:3  And every man that hath this hope in him purifieth himself, even as he is pure.
1Jn_4:8  He that loveth not knoweth not God; for God is love.
1Jn_4:16  And we have known and believed the love that God hath to us. God is love; and he that dwelleth in love dwelleth in God, and God in him.

 

The Hebrew word for love is אהב ‘ahav’ which is consists of the letters  אב ‘av’ which means father and the middle letter ה ‘heh’ which has the meaning of revelation.  The Father revealed.  In ancient Hebrew, the letter ה ‘heh’ was depicted as a man with outstretched arms, like unto Messiah on the cross. How was the love of the Father revealed?  Through the giving of His only begotten Son on the cross as an atonement for the sins of mankind (John 3:16).

Further connecting the Name of God to His character of love and the revelation of this love at Calvary is seen in the ancient pictograph meanings of the Sacred Name.  The pictographs of יהוה ‘Yahweh’ speak of Him being revealed through the nails in His Hands.

It is God’s name/character of love that is written in the heads of His redeemed people (Revelation 22:4).  The prophet Ezekiel was shown that His mark is depicted in the letter ת ‘tav’ which was written in ancient times as the image of the cross (Ezekiel 9:4).

 

Jesus’ declaration of God’s love was manifest on the cross.

 

Psa 22:22  I will declare thy name unto my brethren: in the midst of the congregation will I praise thee.

Heb 2:10  For it became him, for whom are all things, and by whom are all things, in bringing many sons unto glory, to make the captain of their salvation perfect through sufferings.
Heb 2:11  For both he that sanctifieth and they who are sanctified are all of one: for which cause he is not ashamed to call them brethren,
Heb 2:12  Saying, I will declare thy name unto my brethren, in the midst of the church will I sing praise unto thee.

 

The Pictograph meaning of Love

 

 

The first and last letters spell out the word for Father (אב ‘ab’) and the middle letter is a picture of a man with outstretched arms.  The Love of the Father is revealed through the Messiah on the tree, gathering all mankind back to their Creator.

Passover Remembrance

Passover is to be a remembrance/memorial:

Exo 12:14  And this day shall be unto you for a memorial {זכרון ‘zikron’}; and ye shall keep it a feast to the LORD throughout your generations; ye shall keep it a feast by an ordinance for ever.

Passover is a remembrance of the death of Messiah Jesus.

Luk 22:15  And he said unto them, With desire I have desired to eat this passover with you before I suffer:
Luk 22:16  For I say unto you, I will not any more eat thereof, until it be fulfilled in the kingdom of God.
Luk 22:17  And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and said, Take this, and divide it among yourselves:
Luk 22:18  For I say unto you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine, until the kingdom of God shall come.
Luk 22:19  And he took bread, and gave thanks, and brake it, and gave unto them, saying, This is my body which is given for you: this do in remembrance of me.
1Co 11:26  For as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do shew the Lord’s death till he come.

זכרון ‘zikron’ comes from the root word זכר ‘zakar’ which means a “recalling of events of the past or to act upon a past event”.

zakar 2
All the ends of the world shall REMEMBER and turn to the Lord.
Psa 22:27  All the ends of the world shall remember and turn unto the LORD: and all the kindreds of the nations shall worship before thee.
Psa 22:28  For the kingdom is the LORD’S: and he is the governor among the nations.

The word translated as ‘remember’ in Psalm 22:27 is זכר ‘zakar.’  זכר ‘zakar’ is defined as a memorial brought forth by speech (the Word), or to act/speak on behalf of another.  As a result, זכר ‘zakar’ is most commonly translated as ‘remember’ or ‘memorial’ but this word also means ‘male’ as the one who acts and speaks on behalf of the family.  זכר ‘zakar’ also means a ‘ram’ as the male member of the flock.

Why is this significant?  These meanings of the word זכר ‘zakar’ point to to Messiah Jesus.  He is the Man (Ezekiel 1:26-28; 3:23; 8:4; 9:3; 10:4; Daniel 10:5-6; Zechariah 6:12; John 19:5) who acts on behalf of God, declaring His name (Psalm 22:22; 72:17; John 17:6, 12, 26).  Scripture declares that His name is His memorial (Exodus 3:15; Hosea 12:5).

In Genesis 22 we see a ram who was provided as a substitute for Isaac (Genesis 22:7-8).  This ram was a foreshadowing of Messiah, the Promise of God providing Himself as the sacrifice in place of man.  The connection between His name/memorial and the ram is seen in the crucifixion of Messiah.  Psalm 22, which declares that all nations shall remember and return, is all about the crucifixion of Messiah.  It is through His crucifixion that Jesus reveals the name of God.

Gen 22:14  And Abraham called the name of that place Jehovahjireh: as it is said to this day, In the mount of the LORD it shall be seen.

Jesus declared that Abraham saw His day.  This was a declaration that He was God who would provide Himself a lamb for the sacrifice.

Joh 8:56  Your father Abraham rejoiced to see my day: and he saw it, and was glad.
Joh 8:57  Then said the Jews unto him, Thou art not yet fifty years old, and hast thou seen Abraham?
Joh 8:58  Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Before Abraham was, I am.

Gen 22:14  ויקרא אברהם שׁם־המקום ההוא יהוה יראה אשׁר יאמר היום בהר יהוה יראה׃

Literally, in/on the mountain the Lord will be seen.

Abraham calls the place יהוה יראה ‘Yahweh Yireh’ (The LORD will be seen) יראה ‘yireh’ is in the Kal stem, 3rd person masculine singular future tense.  In the mount of the LORD, He shall be seen.

Gen 22:14  And Abraham called the name of that place Jehovahjireh: as it is said to this day, In the mount of the LORD it shall be seen.

Luk 3:6  “and all flesh shall see the salvation of God.” Isaiah 40:3-5

Isa 52:10  Jehovah has bared His holy arm in the eyes of all the nations; and all the ends of the earth shall see the salvation of our God.

How was His Arm revealed?  On the cross.
Isa 53:1  Who has believed our report? And to whom is the arm of Jehovah revealed?

Gen 22:14  And Abraham called the name of that place Jehovah Will See; so that it is said until this day, In the mount of Jehovah it will be seen.

Through His crucifixion, Jesus declared that all nations would be gathered unto Him.


Joh 12:32  And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all men unto me.

Through His crucifixion, Messiah would reveal He is “I AM“, He would declare the name of God.

Joh 8:28  Then Jesus said to them, When you lift up the Son of Man, then you will know that I AM; and from Myself I do nothing; but as My Father taught Me, these things I speak.

The Hebrew word for name is שם ‘shem’ which literally means one’s breathe or character.  What is the character of the Almighty?  Love (1 John 4:8).

The Hebrew word for love is אהב ‘ahav’ which is consists of the letters  אב ‘av‘ which means father and the middle letter ה ‘heh’ which has the meaning of revelation.  The Father revealed.  In ancient Hebrew, the letter ה ‘heh’ was depicted as a man with outstretched arms, like unto Messiah on the cross. How was the love of the Father revealed?  Through the giving of His only begotten Son on the cross as an atonement for the sins of mankind (John 3:16).

It is God’s name/character of love that is written in the heads of His redeemed people (Revelation 22:4).  The prophet Ezekiel was shown that His mark is depicted in the letter ת ‘tav’ which was written in ancient times as the image of the cross (Ezekiel 9:4).

All those who call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved (Joel 2:32).  Does this mean that one has to articulate the letters יהוה correctly to be saved?  No.  This means one needs to declare the name/character of love of God revealed in Jesus’ sacrifice on the cross (Romans 10:9-13).

We see the name of God further displayed at the crucifixion in the title which Pilate affixed above His cross.

Joh 19:19  And Pilate also wrote a title and put it on the cross. And having been written, it was: JESUS THE NAZARENE, THE KING OF THE JEWS.

This would have been rendered as such:

Here we see Jesus’ declaration of God’s love/God’s name was manifest on the cross.

Psa 22:22  I will declare thy name unto my brethren: in the midst of the congregation will I praise thee.

Heb 2:10  For it became him, for whom are all things, and by whom are all things, in bringing many sons unto glory, to make the captain of their salvation perfect through sufferings.
Heb 2:11  For both he that sanctifieth and they who are sanctified are all of one: for which cause he is not ashamed to call them brethren,
Heb 2:12  Saying, I will declare thy name unto my brethren, in the midst of the church will I sing praise unto thee.

Scripture declares that the LORD God has put ‘eternity’ into the hearts of man (Ecclesiastes 3:11).  The Sacred Name יהוה basically means the Eternal One (Psalm 135:13).  He is the Great I AM, who was and is and is to come.  What also is eternal?  The love of God (John 17:24).

Joh 17:21  That they all may be one; as thou, Father, art in me, and I in thee, that they also may be one in us: that the world may believe that thou hast sent me.
Joh 17:22  And the glory which thou gavest me I have given them; that they may be one, even as we are one:
Joh 17:23  I in them, and thou in me, that they may be made perfect in one; and that the world may know that thou hast sent me, and hast loved them, as thou hast loved me.
Joh 17:24  Father, I will that they also, whom thou hast given me, be with me where I am; that they may behold my glory, which thou hast given me: for thou lovedst me before the foundation of the world.
Joh 17:25  O righteous Father, the world hath not known thee: but I have known thee, and these have known that thou hast sent me.
Joh 17:26  And I have declared unto them thy name, and will declare it: that the love wherewith thou hast loved me may be in them, and I in them.

Joh 13:35  By this shall all men know that ye are my disciples, if ye have love one to another.

The return of mankind to the Father is associated with coming to know and glorify His Name, His Memorial.

Jer 16:19  O LORD, my strength, and my fortress, and my refuge in the day of affliction, the Gentiles shall come unto thee from the ends of the earth, and shall say, Surely our fathers have inherited lies, vanity, and things wherein there is no profit.
Jer 16:20  Shall a man make gods unto himself, and they are no gods?
Jer 16:21  Therefore, behold, I will this once cause them to know, I will cause them to know mine hand and my might; and they shall know that my name is The LORD.
Psa 66:4  All the earth shall worship thee, and shall sing unto thee; they shall sing to thy name. Selah.
Psa 86:9  All nations whom thou hast made shall come and worship before thee, O Lord; and shall glorify thy name.

This will be done through the Messiah, the revelation of God’s love.
Isa 49:5  And now, saith the LORD that formed me from the womb to be his servant, to bring Jacob again to him, Though Israel be not gathered, yet shall I be glorious in the eyes of the LORD, and my God shall be my strength.
Isa 49:6  And he said, It is a light thing that thou shouldest be my servant to raise up the tribes of Jacob, and to restore the preserved of Israel: I will also give thee for a light to the Gentiles, that thou mayest be my salvation unto the end of the earth.
Isa 49:6  And he said, It is a light thing that thou shouldest be my servant to raise up the tribes of Jacob, and to restore the preserved of Israel: I will also give thee for a light to the Gentiles, that thou mayest be my salvation unto the end of the earth.
Isa 49:7  Thus saith the LORD, the Redeemer of Israel, and his Holy One, to him whom man despiseth, to him whom the nation abhorreth, to a servant of rulers, Kings shall see and arise, princes also shall worship, because of the LORD that is faithful, and the Holy One of Israel, and he shall choose thee.
Isa 49:8  Thus saith the LORD, In an acceptable time have I heard thee, and in a day of salvation have I helped thee: and I will preserve thee, and give thee for a covenant of the people, to establish the earth, to cause to inherit the desolate heritages;
Isa 49:9  That thou mayest say to the prisoners, Go forth; to them that are in darkness, Shew yourselves. They shall feed in the ways, and their pastures shall be in all high places.
Isa 49:10  They shall not hunger nor thirst; neither shall the heat nor sun smite them: for he that hath mercy on them shall lead them, even by the springs of water shall he guide them.
Isa 49:11  And I will make all my mountains a way, and my highways shall be exalted.
Isa 49:12  Behold, these shall come from far: and, lo, these from the north and from the west; and these from the land of Sinim.
Isa 49:13  Sing, O heavens; and be joyful, O earth; and break forth into singing, O mountains: for the LORD hath comforted his people, and will have mercy upon his afflicted.

ALL nations shall turn to Him and every knee shall bow, confessing that Jesus is Lord (Isaiah 45:22-25; Romans 14:9-13; Philippians 2:1-16).  Through Him (Romans 10:9-10), all nations can praise and confess the name of God (Romans 15:8-12) and become His children (Matthew 10:32; 1 John 4:15).

Psa 65:2  O thou that hearest prayer, unto thee shall all flesh come.
Psa 66:4  All the earth shall worship thee, and shall sing unto thee; they shall sing to thy name. Selah.
Psa 86:9  All nations whom thou hast made shall come and worship before thee, O Lord; and shall glorify thy name.

Passover



1Co 5:7  Then purge out the old leaven so that you may be a new lump, even as you are unleavened. For also Christ our Passover was sacrificed for us.

Messiah is the Lamb of God, sacrificed for the sins of mankind (Isaiah 53:7; John 1:29; 1 Peter 1:19; Revelation 5:6, 12).

Rom 3:24  being justified freely by His grace through the redemption in Christ Jesus,
Rom 3:25  whom God set forth as a propitiation through faith in His blood, as a demonstration of His righteousness through the passing over of the sins that had taken place before, in the forbearance of God,
Rom 3:26  for a demonstration of His righteousness in the present time, for His being just and justifying the one that is of the faith of Jesus.

The Greek word ‘passing over’ in verse 25 is πάρεσις ‘paresis’ which is translated in the King James Version as remission.  Webster defines remission as a ‘release,’ ‘forgiveness,’ or ‘pardon.’  The giving up of the punishment due to a crime.

Albert Barnes on Romans 3:25
For the remission of sins – Margin, “Passing over.” The word used here πάρεσιν  paresin occurs no where else in the New Testament, nor in the Septuagint. It means “passing by,” as not noticing, and hence, forgiving. A similar idea occurs in 2Sa_24:10, and Mic_7:18. “Who is a God like unto thee, that passeth by the transgression of the remnant of his inheritance?” In Romans it means for the “pardoning,” or in order to pardon past transgression.

2Sa 24:10  And after he had numbered the people, the heart of David struck him. And David said to Jehovah, I have sinned greatly in that which I have done. And now, O Jehovah, I pray, take away the iniquity of your servant, for I have acted very foolishly.
Mic 7:18  Who is a God like You, forgiving iniquity and passing by the transgression of the remnant of His possession? He does not make strong His anger forever, for He delights in grace.

‘Take away’ in 2 Samuel 24:10 and ‘passing by’ in Micah 7:18 comes from the Hebrew word עבר ‘avar’ which means to pass over.

Deliverance

Exo 12:26  And it shall be, when your sons say to you, What is this service to you?
Exo 12:27  Then you shall say, A sacrifice of a passover of Jehovah, who passed over the houses of the sons of Israel in Egypt when He struck Egypt. And He delivered our houses. And the people bowed and worshiped.

The Hebrew word for deliver is נצל ‘natsal’ which comes from the root צל ‘tsel’ which means a shadow.

Isa 31:5  As birds that fly, so Jehovah of Hosts will shield over Jerusalem; shielding and delivering, and passing over, He will save it.

The word in Isaiah 31:5 for shield is גנן ‘ganan’ which is speaking of the walls that protect a garden or sheepfold.  Delivering is this same Hebrew word נצל ‘natsal.’  Passing over is פסח ‘pasach’ from whence comes ‘Passover.’  Here the imagery of Passover is displayed as God is likened to an eagle under whose wings we are gathered to be saved from our enemies.

Psa 17:8  Keep me as the pupil, the daughter of the eye; hide me in the shadow of Your wings,
Deu 32:10  He found him in a desert land, and in the waste, a howling wilderness. He encircled him and cared for him; He guarded him as the pupil of His eye.
Deu 32:11  As the eagle stirs up its nest; it hovers over its young; it spreads out its wings and takes it, and bears it on its wing.
Zec 2:5 And I will be to her a wall of fire all around, and I will be for glory in her midst, declares Jehovah.
Zec 2:8  For so says Jehovah of Hosts: He has sent Me after glory, to the nations who plundered you; for he who touches you touches the pupil of His eye.
Psa 91:1  He who dwells in the secret place of the Most High shall abide in the shade of the Almighty.
Psa 91:2  I will say to Jehovah: My Refuge and my Fortress, my God; I will trust in Him.
Psa 91:3  For He delivers {נצל ‘natsal’} you from the fowler’s snare, from destruction’s plague.
Psa 91:4  With His feathers He will cover you, and under His wings you shall seek refuge; His truth is a shield and buckler.
Mat 23:37  Jerusalem, Jerusalem, the one killing the prophets and stoning those sent to her. How often I desired to gather your children in the way a bird gathers her chicks under her wings! And you did not desire it.

רחף ‘rachaf’ comes from the root:

Messiah is the door that we enter in order to abide in His ‘House’ (John 10:7) it is through Him that we are covered/hidden.  This is the definition of who the Israel of God is (Galatians 6:16)…His hidden ones (Psalm 83:3).  It is by the covenant cut in Messiah (Daniel 9:26; Isaiah 42:6) by His sacrifice on the tree that we are covered (1 John 1:7).  It is through His Outstretched Arms (wings) that Messiah is calling us (John 3:14; 12:32) and gathering us together as a Shepherd does His flock (John 10:14-16).  This is how we enter the Door into the House, this is how we are declared innocent and pure in His eyes.  This is how we become His friends and enter into His tents in an intimate relationship.


חף ‘chaph’ is the root for the word חופה ‘chuppah’/wedding canopy

Abiding under the shadow of His wings and being in ‘marriage covenant’ with Him through Messiah is one and the same thing.

The canopy as a covering is connected with being the ‘little guy in His eye

Zec 2:8  For so says Jehovah of Hosts: He has sent Me after glory, to the nations who plundered you; for he who touches you touches the pupil of His eye.
Zec 2:5 And I will be to her a wall of fire all around, and I will be for glory in her midst, declares Jehovah.
Isa 4:2  In that day the Branch of Jehovah will be beautiful and glorious, and the fruit of the earth for pride and for glory for the survivors of Israel.
Isa 4:3  And it shall be, he remaining in Zion, and he who is left in Jerusalem, shall be called holy, every one who is written among the living in Jerusalem;
Isa 4:4  when the Lord shall have washed away the filth of the daughters of Zion, and the blood of Jerusalem shall have been rinsed away from its midst by a spirit of judgment, and by a spirit of burning.
Isa 4:5  Then Jehovah will create a cloud and smoke by day, and the shining of a flaming fire by night, over all the site of Mount Zion, and over her assemblies; for on all the glory will be a canopy
(חופה ‘chuppah’).
Isa 4:6  And there shall be a booth for a shade from the heat, and for a refuge, and for a hiding place from storm and rain. 

פסח ‘pasach/pesach’ is used 74 times in Scripture.  This corresponds to the numerical value of the Hebrew word למד ‘lamad’ which is speaking of the guidance/teaching of the Shepherd.  This is also word for the letter ל.

The letter ל ‘lamed’ has the value of 30 – which corresponds to the year Messiah was crucified and is linked to the Lamb as the Greek word for lamb  ἀρνίον ‘arnion’ is used 30 times in Scripture.

The Hebrew word עד ‘ad’ is also equivalent to the number 74.  עד ‘ad’ is translated as witness but literally means to ‘see the door.’   This is pointing to the blood on the doorposts at Passover (Exodus 12:22-23), and to THE Door, who is Messiah.

Joh 10:7  Then Jesus again said to them, Truly, truly, I say to you that I am the door of the sheep.
Joh 10:8  All who came before Me are thieves and plunderers, but the sheep did not hear them.
Joh 10:9  I am the door. If anyone enters through Me, he will be saved, and will go in, and will go out, and will find pasture.

The Greek word for Passover, πάσχα ‘pascha,’ is translated as Passover 28 times in the New Testament.

The Hebrew word כח ‘koach’ which means power has a numerical value of 28.  28 is also linked to the cross.  The letter ת ‘tav’ is a picture of the cross.  ת ‘tav’ is spelled as תו which consists of ת the 22nd letter of the Hebrew alphabet and ו ‘vav’ the 6th letter giving the total of 28.

1Co 1:18  For the Word of the cross is foolishness to those being lost, but to us being saved, it is the power of God.

The תו ‘tav’ – Passover connection is further seen in Ezekiel 9.

Eze 9:4  And Jehovah said to him, Pass through in the midst of the city, in the midst of Jerusalem, and mark a mark {תו ‘tav’} on the foreheads of the men who are groaning and are mourning over all the abominations that are done in her midst.
Eze 9:5  And He said to those in my hearing, Pass over in the city after him and strike. Do not let your eye spare, and do not have pity.

The Hebrew word for ‘pass over’ in verse 5 is עבר ‘avar.’


עבר ‘avar’ is the root of the word עברי ‘ivri’ which is translated as ‘Hebrew.’

The Hebrew word for the Hebrew language is עברית ‘ivrit.’  עברית ‘ivrit’ comes from the root בר ‘bar’ which means ‘pure.’  Hebrew breaks down pictographically as thus:

ע ayin means to see
בר bet-resh is the word for Son
י yod is a hand
ת tav is a cross

The pictographs of the word עברית ‘ivrit’ means to ‘see the Son with hands on the cross.’  The Hebrew language was designed to reveal the Gospel.  It is through the work of Messiah on the cross that all mankind is brought back to the Father.

The number 28 is also displayed in the phrases ‘in Yahweh,’ ‘in Him will I trust,’ and ‘beloved.’

The Lamb



There are two words in the New Testament translated as lamb, ἀμνος ‘amnos’ & ἀρνιον ‘arnion.’  The first word, ἀμνός ‘amnos’ is used four times, all four times speaking of the Lamb that would be slayed for the salvation of the world.

Joh 1:29  On the morrow, John sees Jesus coming toward him and said, Behold! The Lamb of God, taking away the sin of the world!
Joh 1:36  And looking at Jesus walking, he said, Behold, the Lamb of God!
Act 8:32  And the content of the Scripture which he was reading was this: “He was led as a sheep to slaughter, and as a lamb voiceless before the one shearing it, so He does not open His mouth.
Act 8:33  In His humiliation His judgment was taken away. And who will recount His generation? For His life is taken away from the earth.” Isa. 53:7, 8
Act 8:34  And answering the eunuch said to Philip, I ask you, about whom does the prophet say this? About himself, or about some other one?
Act 8:35  And opening his mouth, and beginning from this Scripture, Philip announced the gospel to him, Jesus.
1Pe 1:17  And if you call on the Father, the One judging according to the work of each one without respect of faces pass the time of your sojourning in fear,
1Pe 1:18  knowing that not with corruptible things, silver or gold, were you redeemed from your worthless way of life handed down from your fathers,
1Pe 1:19  but with precious blood of Christ, as a lamb without blemish and without spot,
1Pe 1:20  indeed having been foreknown before the foundation of the world, but revealed in the last times because of you,
1Pe 1:21  the ones believing in God through Him, He raising Him from the dead, and giving glory to Him so that your faith and hope may be in God.
1Pe 1:22  Having purified your souls in the obedience of the truth through the Spirit to unpretended brotherly love, love one another fervently out of a pure heart,
1Pe 1:23  being regenerated, not by corruptible seed, but incorruptible, through the living Word of God, and remaining forever.
1Pe 1:24  Because “all flesh is as grass, and all the glory of men as the flower of grass; the grass was dried, and its flower fell out,
1Pe 1:25  but the Word of the Lord remains forever.” And this is the Word announced as gospel to you. Isaiah 40:6-8

In Hebrew, the number four is רבע ‘reva’ which means the four sides of a square.  This is pointing to the four-square city of New Jerusalem, the city of the redeemed.

Rev 21:14  And the wall of the city had twelve foundations, and in them the names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb.
Rev 21:15  And he speaking with me had a golden reed, that he may measure the city, and its gates, and its wall.
Rev 21:16  And the city lies four cornered, even its length as much as the width also. And he measured the city with the reed at twelve thousand stadia; its length and width and height are equal.
Rev 21:22  And I saw no temple in it, for the Lord God Almighty is its temple, even the Lamb.

The Hebrew letter which displays the number 4 is ד ‘dalet.’  The letter ‘dalet’ is a picture of a door.

Joh 10:1  Truly, truly, I say to you, The one not entering through the door into the sheepfold, but going up by another way, that one is a thief and a plunderer.
Joh 10:2  But the one entering through the door is the shepherd of the sheep.
Joh 10:3  The doorkeeper opens to him, and the sheep hear his voice, and he calls his own sheep by name, and leads them out.
Joh 10:4  And when he puts forth his own sheep, he goes in front of them, and the sheep follow him because they know his voice.
Joh 10:5  But they will not follow a stranger, never! But they will flee from him, because they do not know the voice of the strangers.
Joh 10:6  Jesus spoke this allegory to them, but they did not know what it was which He spoke to them.
Joh 10:7  Then Jesus again said to them, Truly, truly, I say to you that I am the door of the sheep.
Joh 10:8  All who came before Me are thieves and plunderers, but the sheep did not hear them.
Joh 10:9  I am the door. If anyone enters through Me, he will be saved, and will go in, and will go out, and will find pasture.
Joh 10:10  The thief does not come except that he may steal, and kill, and destroy. I came that they may have life and may have it abundantly.
Joh 10:11  I am the Good Shepherd! The Good Shepherd lays down His life on behalf of the sheep.
Joh 10:12  But the hireling, not even being a shepherd, who does not own the sheep, sees the wolf coming and forsakes the sheep and flees. And the wolf seizes them, and scatters the sheep.
Joh 10:13  But the hireling flees because he is a hireling, and there is not a care to him concerning the sheep.
Joh 10:14  I am the Good Shepherd, and I know those that are Mine, and I am known by the ones that are Mine.
Joh 10:15  Even as the Father knows Me, I also know the Father; and I lay down My life for the sheep.
Joh 10:16  And I have other sheep which are not of this fold. I must also lead those, and they will hear My voice; and there will be one flock, one Shepherd.
Joh 10:17  For this reason My Father loves Me, because I lay down My life, that I may take it again.
Joh 10:18  No one takes it from Me, but I lay it down from Myself. I have authority to lay it down, and I have authority to take it again. I received this commandment from My Father.

The second word for lamb in the New Testament is ἀρνίον ‘arnion.’  This word is used 30 times in Scripture, all but one time in the book of Revelation.  This usage of this word is referring to the victorious Lamb who has lifted up His people.  ἀμνός ‘amnos’ speaking of His death & ἀρνίον ‘arnion’ speaking of His resurrection & victory.  It is interesting to note that two of numerous Hebrew words for lamb is כבש ‘keves’ and כשב ‘kesev’ which displays this concept.  כשב ‘kesev’ is speaking of a docile lamb.  כבש ‘keves’ means to dominate.

Isaac Mozeson describes this submission, conquering connection in the Hebrew words for lamb/sheep.

“The giving of animals to the altar is far more than sacrificing one’s desired wealth.  A penitent wishes to conqure his character flaws, to grow from willful, animalistic sinner to obedient lamb…only in the language of the Bible is the gentle lamb and the theme of conquest linked by an identical root.”  {The Origin of Speeches: Intelligent Design in Language Pg 191-192}

Rev 5:6  And I saw, and behold, in the midst of the throne, and of the four living creatures, and in the midst of the elders, was a Lamb standing, as having been slain, having seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven Spirits of God, having been sent out into all the earth.
Rev 5:7  And He came and took the scroll out of the right hand of Him sitting on the throne.
Rev 5:8  And when He took the scroll, the four living creatures and the twenty four elders fell down before the Lamb, each one having harps, and golden bowls full of incenses, which are the prayers of the saints.
Rev 5:9  And they sing a new song, saying, Worthy are You to receive the scroll, and to open its seals, because You were slain, and by Your blood purchased us to God out of every tribe and tongue and people and nation,
Rev 5:10  and made us kings and priests to our God; and we shall reign over the earth.
Rev 5:11  And I saw, and I heard a sound of many angels around the throne, and the living creatures, and the elders, and their number was myriads of myriads, and thousands of thousands,
Rev 5:12  saying with a great voice, Worthy is the Lamb having been slain to receive the power and riches and wisdom and strength and honor and glory and blessing.
Rev 5:13  And every creature which is in Heaven, and in the earth, and underneath the earth, and the things that are on the sea, and the things in all of them, I heard saying: To Him sitting on the throne, and to the Lamb be the blessing and the honor and the glory and the might forever and ever.
Rev 5:14  And the four living creatures said, Amen. And the twenty four elders fell down and worshiped the One living forever and ever.
Rev 7:9  After these things I saw, and behold, a great crowd which no one was able to number them, out of every nation, even tribes and peoples and tongues, standing in front of the throne, and before the Lamb, having been clothed with white robes, and in their hands palm branches.
Rev 7:10  And they cry with a great voice, saying, Salvation to our God sitting on the throne, and to the Lamb.
Rev 7:11  And all the angels and of the elders and of the four living creatures stood around the throne. And they fell before the throne on their faces, and worshiped God,
Rev 7:12  saying, Amen. Blessing and glory and wisdom and thanksgiving and honor and power and strength to our God forever and ever. Amen.
Rev 7:13  And one of the elders answered, saying to me, These, the ones having been clothed in the white robes, who are they, and from where did they come?
Rev 7:14  And I said to him, Sir, you know. And he said to me, These are those coming out of the great tribulation; and they washed their robes and whitened them in the blood of the Lamb. 

It is interesting to note that the word for wash in Hebrew is כבס ‘keves’ which is related to the word for lamb כבש ‘keves’ as they sound exactly alike.  The relation is seen further in Leviticus 14:8-14 where the words are intimately linked.  Revelation 19:6-9

Rev 7:15  Because of this they are before the throne of God, and serve Him day and night in His sanctuary. And He sitting on the throne will spread His tabernacle over them.
Rev 7:16  And they will not hunger still, nor will they thirst still, nor at all shall fall on them the sun, nor any kind of heat.
Rev 7:17  Because the Lamb in the midst of the throne will shepherd them, and will lead them on living springs of waters; and God will wipe off every tear from their eyes.

Overcoming through the blood of the Lamb

Rev 12:11  And they overcame him because of the blood of the Lamb, and because of the Word of their testimony. And they did not love their soul even until death.
1Jn 4:4  Little children, you are of God and have overcome them, because He in you is greater than he in the world.
Gen 32:28  And He said, Your name shall no longer be called Jacob, but Israel, because you have wrestled with God and with men, and have prevailed.

Israel means one who overcomes/prevails with God.

1Jo 5:3  For this is the love of God, that we keep his commandments: and his commandments are not grievous.
1Jo 5:4  For whatsoever is born of God overcometh the world: and this is the victory that overcometh the world, even our faith.
1Jo 5:5  Who is he that overcometh the world, but he that believeth that Jesus is the Son of God?
Rev 15:2  And I saw, as a glassy sea having been mixed with fire. And the ones overcoming the beast, and its image, and its mark, of the number of its name, were standing on the glassy sea, having harps of God.
Rev 15:3  And they sing the song of Moses the slave of God, and the song of the Lamb, saying, Great and marvelous are Your works, Lord God Almighty, righteous and true are Your ways, King of the saints.
Rev 15:4  Who will not fear You, Lord, and glorify Your name? For You only are holy. For all the nations will come and will worship before You, because Your righteousnesses were made known.

The blood is His mark

Exo 12:13  And the blood shall be a sign to you, on the houses where you are. And I will see the blood, and I will pass over you*. And the plague shall not be on you to destroy, when I strike in the land of Egypt.

It is the blood of Messiah that marks us as His own

Rev 1:5  even from Jesus Christ the Faithful Witness, the First-born out of the dead, and the Ruler of the kings of the earth. To Him loving us and washing us from our sins by His blood,
Rev 1:6  and made us kings and priests to God, even His Father. To Him is the glory and the might forever and ever. Amen.

The blood is associated with Passover and unleavened bread

1Co 5:7  Then purge out the old leaven so that you may be a new lump, even as you are unleavened. For also Christ our Passover was sacrificed for us.

UNLEAVENED BREAD is also a sign/mark of God

Exo 13:6  Seven days thou shalt eat unleavened bread, and in the seventh day shall be a feast to the LORD.
Exo 13:7  Unleavened bread shall be eaten seven days; and there shall no leavened bread be seen with thee, neither shall there be leaven seen with thee in all thy quarters.
Exo 13:8  And thou shalt shew thy son in that day, saying, This is done because of that which the LORD did unto me when I came forth out of Egypt.
Exo 13:9  And it shall be for a sign unto thee upon thine hand, and for a memorial between thine eyes, that the LORD’S law may be in thy mouth: for with a strong hand hath the LORD brought thee out of Egypt.

COMMANDMENTS

Deu 6:6  And these words, which I command thee this day, shall be in thine heart:
Deu 6:7  And thou shalt teach them diligently unto thy children, and shalt talk of them when thou sittest in thine house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up.
Deu 6:8  And thou shalt bind them for a sign upon thine hand, and they shall be as frontlets between thine eyes.
Deu 6:9  And thou shalt write them upon the posts of thy house, and on thy gates.
Deu 11:18  Therefore shall ye lay up these my words in your heart and in your soul, and bind them for a sign upon your hand, that they may be as frontlets between your eyes.

Redemption of the 1st born…pointing back to Passover and especially referring to Messiah Jesus.  At the time of the end when the mark of the beast is instituted, at the same time the mark of God will be in the foreheads of the 144,000 who are the firstfruits/firstborn.

Exo 13:15  And it happened when Pharaoh hardened himself against sending us away, Jehovah every first-born one in the land of Egypt, from the first-born of men even to the first-born of animals. On account of this I sacrifice to Jehovah every one of the males opening the womb, and I redeem every first-born of my sons.
Exo 13:16  And it shall be for a sign on your hand, and frontlets between your eyes. For Jehovah brought us out from Egypt by the might of His hand.
Rev 14:1  And I saw, and behold, the Lamb standing on Mount Zion! And with Him were a hundred and forty four thousands, with the name of His Father having been written on their foreheads.
Rev 22:4  And they will see His face; and His name will be on their foreheads.

His Name is the Word

Rev 19:13  and having been clothed in a garment which had been dipped in blood. And His name is called The Word of God.

We are marked by the Name/Torah/Jesus

Rev 7:3  Do not harm the earth, nor the sea, nor the trees, until we seal the slaves of our God on their foreheads.
Rev 7:4  And I heard the number of those having been sealed: one hundred forty four thousands, having been sealed out of every tribe of the sons of Israel:
Rev 14:1  And I saw, and behold, the Lamb standing on Mount Zion! And with Him were a hundred and forty four thousands, with the name of His Father having been written on their foreheads.
Rev 14:2  And I heard a sound out of Heaven, as a sound of many waters, and as a sound of great thunder. Also I heard a sound of harpers harping on their harps.
Rev 14:3  And they sing as a new song before the throne, and before the four living creatures and the elders. And no one was able to learn the song except the hundred and forty four thousands, those having been redeemed from the earth.
Rev 14:4  These are the ones who were not defiled with women, for they are virgins. These are the ones following the Lamb wherever He may go. These were redeemed from among men as a firstfruit to God and to the Lamb.
Rev 14:5  And no guile was found in their mouth, for they are without blemish before the throne of God.
Rev 13:8  And all those dwelling in the earth will worship it, those of whom the names had not been written in the Book of Life of the Lamb having been slain from the foundation of the world.

Believers, whose names are in the book of life from the foundation of the world are ‘predestined’ to be marked as His children.  Believers in Messiah are the CHOSEN PEOPLE who are MARKED with the MARK OF GOD, they will receive the INHERITANCE.  The counterfeit is the false chosen people, the mark of the beast, the false inheritance.

Tit 1:1  Paul, a slave of God and an apostle of Jesus Christ according to the faith of the elect of God and full knowledge of the truth according to godliness,
Tit 1:2  on hope of eternal life which the God who does not lie promised before the eternal times,
Tit 1:3  but revealed in its own times in a proclamation of His Word, with which I was entrusted by the command of our Savior God;
Tit 1:4  to Titus, a true child according to our common faith: Grace, mercy, peace from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ our Savior.

Lamsa Aramaic translation

Eph 1:4  Just as from the beginning he has chosen us through him, before the foundation of the world, that we may become holy and without blemish before him.
Eph 1:5  And he marked us with his love {His love is His Christ…this is what the Mark of God is} to be his from the beginning, and adopted us to be sons through Jesus Christ, as it pleased his will. 

Eph 1:11  in whom we also have been chosen to an inheritance, being predestinated (Aramaic mark) according to the purpose of the One working all things according to the counsel of His own will, 

In Greek the word chosen is from:
G2820
κληρόω
klēroō
Thayer Definition:
1) to cast lots, determine by lot
2) to choose by lot
3) to allot, assign by lot
3a) on to another as a possession
4) in NT: to make a lot, i.e. a heritage, private possession
Part of Speech: verb
A Related Word by Thayer’s/Strong’s Number: from G2819

Holy Bible From The Ancient Eastern Texts: George Lamsa

Eph 1:11  By whom we have been chosen, as he had marked us from the beginning so he wanted to carry out everything according to the good judgment of his will:

Literal Version: Jay P. Green

Eph 1:12  That we should become the first to trust in Christ, to his honor and his glory:
Eph 1:13  In whom, you also have heard the word of truth, which is the gospel for your salvation: in him you have believed, so you are sealed with the Holy Spirit that was promised,

Marked and Chosen

Rom 8:23  And not only they, but ourselves also, who have the first fruits of the Spirit, even we groan within ourselves, waiting for the adoption, that is, the redemption of our bodies.
Rom 8:24  For we live in hope: but hope that is seen is not hope: for if we see it, why should we yet hope?
Rom 8:25  But if we hope for that which we do not see, then do we wait for it in patience.
Rom 8:26  Likewise the Spirit also helps our weaknesses: for we do not know what is right and proper for us to pray for: but the Spirit prays for us with that earnestness which cannot be described.
Rom 8:27  And he who searches the hearts knows what is the mind of the Spirit, for the Spirit prays for the saints according to the will of God.
Rom 8:28  And we know that all things work together for good to them that love God, to them who are the called according to his purpose.
Rom 8:29  He knew them in advance and he marked them with the likeness of the image of his Son that he might be the first-born among many brethren.
Rom 8:30  Moreover, those he did mark in advance, he has called, and those he has called, he has declared righteous, and those he has declared righteous, he has glorified.

Not all Israel is Israel

Rom 9:6  Not as though the word of God hath taken none effect. For they are not all Israel, which are of Israel:
Rom 9:7  Neither, because they are the seed of Abraham, are they all children: but, In Isaac shall thy seed be called.
Rom 9:8  That is, They which are the children of the flesh, these are not the children of God: but the children of the promise are counted for the seed.
Gal 4:28  Now we, brethren, as Isaac was, are the children of promise.
Gal 6:16  And as many as shall walk by this rule, peace and mercy be on them and on the Israel of God.

The word ἀρνίον ‘arnion’ is used 30 times in Scripture.  This corresponds to the letter ל ‘lamed’ in Hebrew which speaking of the goad or staff of the Shepherd.  ל ‘lamed’ is also the 12th letter of the Hebrew alphabet, linking to the twelve tribes of Israel, His flock.

It is interesting to note that the original name of the letter was לם ‘lam’ which is also speaking of the relationship between a Shepherd and His sheep.  It is no surprise that the origin of the English word ‘lamb’ would then come from this Hebrew word.

The word למד ‘lamed’ means to teach or make disciples.

Israel = His Disciples

The word סר ‘sar’ means one who turns which is the root of the words for prince and is associated with the yoke and learning.  Discipleship and being an Israelite are intimately connected together.


Disciple comes from the Hebrew word

H3928 למּד  /  למּוּד limmûd
From H3925 instructed: – accustomed, disciple, learned, taught, used.
H3925 למד lâmad law-mad’ A primitive root; properly to goad (Mtt 11:29), that is, (by implication) to teach (the rod being an Oriental incentive): – [un-] accustomed, X diligently, expert, instruct, learn, skilful, teach (-er, -ing).
G3101 μαθητής mathētēs math-ay-tes’ From G3129; a learner, that is, pupil: – disciple.

Pupil=apple of the eye.  Israel is the apple of God’s eye {little guy in His Eye}.

Joh 8:31  Then said Jesus to those Jews which believed on him, If ye continue in my word, then are ye my disciples indeed;
Joh 8:32  And ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free.
Isa 8:16  Bind up the testimony, seal the law among my disciples.
Rev 12:11  And they overcame him by the blood of the Lamb, and by the word of their testimony; and they loved not their lives unto the death.
Rev 12:17  And the dragon was wroth with the woman, and went to make war with the remnant of her seed, which keep the commandments of God, and have the testimony of Jesus Christ.
Rev 14:12  Here is the patience of the saints: here are they that keep the commandments of God, and the faith of Jesus.
Isa 54:13  And all thy children shall be taught (DISCIPLED) of the LORD; and great shall be the peace of thy children.
Psa 119:165  Great peace have they which love thy law: and nothing shall offend them.
Mat 28:19  Go ye therefore, and teach (DISCIPLE) all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost:
Mat 28:20  Teaching (DISCIPLING) them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world. Amen.

The Hebrew word יהודה ‘yehudah’ or Jew also has the numerical value of 30.

Rom 2:28  For he is not a Jew that is one outwardly, nor is circumcision that outwardly in flesh;
Rom 2:29  but he is a Jew that is one inwardly, and circumcision is of heart, in spirit, not in letter; of whom the praise is not from men, but from God.

יהודה ‘yehudah’ comes from the Hebrew root ידה ‘yadah’ which means to raise the hands in confession, giving thanks or praise.

1Jn 4:2  By this know the Spirit of God: every spirit which confesses that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is from God.

The Gospel connection

Rom 10:10  For with the heart one believes unto righteousness, and with the mouth one confesses unto salvation.
Rom 10:11  For the Scripture says, “Everyone believing on Him will not be put to shame.” Isa. 28:16
Rom 10:12  For there is no difference both of Jew and of Greek, for the same Lord of all is rich toward all the ones calling on Him.
Rom 10:13  For everyone, “whoever may call on the name of the Lord will be saved.” Joel 2:32
Rom 10:14  How then may they call on One into whom they have not believed? And how may they believe One of whom they have not heard? And how may they hear without preaching?
Rom 10:15  And how may they preach if they are not sent? Even as it has been written, “How beautiful” “the feet of those preaching the gospel of peace, of those preaching the gospel of good things.” Isa. 52:7
Rom 10:16  But not all obeyed the gospel, for Isaiah says, “Lord, who has believed our report?” Isa. 53:1
Rom 10:17  Then faith is of hearing, and hearing through the Word of God.
Isa 40:9  Go up for yourself on the high mountain, one bearing good news to Zion; lift up your voice with strength, one bearing good news to Jerusalem. Lift up, do not fear. Say to the cities of Judah, Behold! Your God!
Isa 40:10  Behold, the Lord Jehovah will come with strength, and His arm rules for Him. Behold, His reward is with Him, and His wage before Him.
Isa 40:11  He shall feed His flock like a shepherd; He shall gather lambs with His arm; and carry them in His bosom; those with young He will lead;
1Jn 4:15  Whoever confesses that Jesus is the Son of God, God abides in him, and he in God.

In Greek ‘confession’ comes from the word  means ὁμολογέω ‘homologeō’ which literally means ‘joined to the Word.’  To ‘cleave’ to Him.  One of the Hebrew words for flock is דבר ‘davar’ which also means ‘word’ in Hebrew.  This is speaking of the ordering of the sheep by the Shepherd (Micah 2:12).

It is interesting to note that in Song of Songs 5:6, ‘my beloved’ has a numerical value of 30 as well.  This word in Hebrew is דוד ‘dod’ which means the bosom.

Isa 40:10  Behold, the Lord Jehovah will come with strength, and His arm {Isaiah 53 – His Arm is the Lamb} rules for Him. Behold, His reward is with Him, and His wage before Him.
Isa 40:11  He shall feed His flock like a shepherd; He shall gather lambs with His arm; and carry them in His bosom; those with young He will lead;

Thanksgiving

Rev 7:12  Saying, Amen: Blessing, and glory, and wisdom, and thanksgiving, and honour, and power, and might, be unto our God for ever and ever. Amen.

The Greek word here is εὐχαριστία ‘eucharistia’ which is used in the Septuagint to translate the Hebrew word חן ‘chen’ which means grace, but also a camp.



This is what grace looks like:

 

חן Chen = 58

Lev 17:11  For the life of the flesh is in the blood*, and I have given it to you on the altar, to atone for your souls; for it is the blood which makes atonement for the soul.

*בדם הוא ‘b’dam he’…literally in His blood.  This phrase = 58

in his blood

It is only through faith in the blood of the Lamb that we can find His grace.  It is through the blood of the Lamb of God that we enter into covenant with the Most High and are brought into the camp of the righteous.  The gates of the righteous are opened so that we can enter in through the door of the sheepfold who is the Messiah.

The name Noah = 58

noah

Noah comes from the word נוח ‘nuach’ meaning rest.

nuach

נוח ‘nuach’comes from the root:

nach

This is the picture that Psalm 23 paints.  The end of the exile where the Good Shepherd leads us to the still waters.  The pictograph meaning of this word {נוח ‘nuach’} also can mean the seed inside the walls as in His people in the camp.

The garden = 58

the garden 58

The kingdom, His rest, His nuach is the garden of Eden restored.

Gen 2:15  And Jehovah God took the man and put {נוח ‘nuach} him into the Garden of Eden, to work it and to keep it.
 
The word here in Hebrew is נוח ‘nuach.’


It is interesting to note that the English word ‘garden’ comes from the Hebrew word גדר ‘gadar’ which means an enclosure, as in the enclosure for a sheepfold.  גדר ‘gadar’ comes from the root word דר ‘dar’ which is the same root as דבר ‘davar’ (the Word).

Psa 95:6  O come, let us worship and bow down; let us kneel before Jehovah our Maker.
Psa 95:7  For He is our God; and we are the people of His pasture, and the sheep of His hand. Today, if you will hear His voice,
Psa 95:8  do not harden your heart as in the day of strife, as in the day of testing in the wilderness.
Psa 95:9  When your fathers tried Me, they tested Me and they saw My work.
Psa 95:10  For forty years I was disgusted with this generation; and I said, They are a people who err in heart; and, They do not know My ways,
Psa 95:11  to whom I swore in My anger, They shall not enter into My rest.
Col 3:15  And let the peace of God rule in your hearts, to which you also were called in one body, and be thankful.
Col 3:16  Let the Word of Christ dwell in you richly, in all wisdom teaching and exhorting yourselves in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing with grace in your hearts to the Lord.
Col 3:17  And everything, whatever you do in word or in work, do all things in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God and the Father through Him.
Psa 118:19  Open the gates of righteousness to me, I will enter into them; I will thank Jehovah.
Psa 118:20  This is the gate of Jehovah, the righteous shall enter into it.
Psa 118:21  I will thank You, for You answered me, and You are my salvation.
Psa 118:22  The Stone which the builders rejected has become the Head of the Corner.
Psa 118:23  This is from Jehovah, it is marvelous in our eyes.
Psa 118:24  This is the day Jehovah has made; we will rejoice and be glad in it.
Psa 118:25  O Jehovah, I beseech You, save now; I beseech You, O Jehovah, cause us to prosper now.
Psa 118:26  Blessed is he who comes in the name of Jehovah; we blessed you from the house of Jehovah.
Psa 118:27  Jehovah is God, and He gives light to us. Tie the sacrifice with cords, to the horns of the altar.
Psa 118:28  You are my God, and I will exalt You; My God, I will thank You!
Psa 118:29  O give thanks to Jehovah, for He is good; for His mercy endures forever.

Giving Praise

Isa 12:1  And in that day you shall say, O Jehovah, I will thank You. Though You were angry with me, turn away Your anger and You shall comfort me.
Isa 12:2  Behold, God is my salvation! I will trust and not be afraid, for my strength and song is Jah Jehovah ; yea, He has become my salvation.
Isa 12:3  And you shall draw waters out of the wells of salvation with joy.
Isa 12:4  And in that day you shall say, Praise Jehovah! Call on His name; declare His doings among the peoples; make mention that His name is exalted.
Isa 12:5  Sing to Jehovah, for He has done majestically; this is known in all the earth.
Isa 12:6  Cry and shout, O dweller of Zion! For great is the Holy One of Israel in your midst.


His sheep

Psa 100:1  A Psalm of Thanksgiving. Shout joyfully to Jehovah, all the land.
Psa 100:2  Worship Jehovah with gladness; come before His face with joyful singing.
Psa 100:3  Know that Jehovah, He is God; He has made us, and not we ourselves, His people and the sheep of His pasture.
Psa 100:4  Enter into His gates with thanksgiving, into His courts with praise; be thankful to Him; bless His name.
Psa 100:5  For Jehovah is good; His mercy is everlasting, and His faithfulness to generation and generation.
Psa 74:1  A Lesson, of Asaph. O God, have You cast us off forever; will Your anger smoke against the sheep of Your pasture?
Psa 74:2  Remember Your congregation; You bought them in days before; You redeemed us as the rod of Your inheritance, this Mount Zion in which You have dwelt.
Psa 78:51  And he struck all the first-born in Egypt, the firstfruits of strength in the tents of Ham;
Psa 78:52  and He led His people forth like sheep; and He led them like a flock in the wilderness.
Psa 79:13  Then we Your people, and sheep of Your pasture, will give thanks to You forever; we will declare Your praise to all generations.

Unleavened Bread

Exo 12:15  Seven days shall ye eat unleavened bread; even the first day ye shall put away leaven out of your houses: for whosoever eateth leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, that soul shall be cut off from Israel.
Exo 12:16  And in the first day there shall be an holy convocation, and in the seventh day there shall be an holy convocation to you; no manner of work shall be done in them, save that which every man must eat, that only may be done of you.
Exo 12:17  And ye shall observe the feast of unleavened bread; for in this selfsame day have I brought your armies out of the land of Egypt: therefore shall ye observe this day in your generations by an ordinance for ever.
Exo 12:18  In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at even, ye shall eat unleavened bread, until the one and twentieth day of the month at even.
Exo 12:19  Seven days shall there be no leaven found in your houses: for whosoever eateth that which is leavened, even that soul shall be cut off from the congregation of Israel, whether he be a stranger, or born in the land.
Exo 12:20  Ye shall eat nothing leavened; in all your habitations shall ye eat unleavened bread.



Unleavened bread מצות ‘matsot’ is spelled exactly the same as the Hebrew word for commandments מצות ‘mitsvot.’

This word מצות ‘mitsvot’ is used 37 times in the Scriptures which corresponds to the word הלב ‘halev’ which means ‘the heart.’  37 is also the ordinal value {order of letters in sequence} of חכמה ‘chokhmah’ which means wisdom.

Pro 10:8  The wise in heart accepts commands {מצות ‘mitsvot’}, but the foolish of lips shall be thrust away.

His Word is His ‘heart.’ The Hebrew word תורה ‘torah’ is commonly translated as ‘law’ but is more properly defined as God’s will or heart/mind, His message to mankind…His ‘love letter.’

The first letter of the Torah is ב ‘bet,’ the last letter of the Torah is ל ‘lamed,’ the last letter of the TaNaKH is also ל ‘lamed.’  Both forwards בל ‘bal’ and in reverse לב ‘lev’ the word for heart is seen.

H1079
בּל  (Aramaic)
bâl
BDB Definition:
1) mind, heart

The Torah/TaNaKH is the ‘heart’ of God (Psalm 119:32; Isaiah 51:7; Philippians 2:8).

Psa 37:30  The mouth of the righteous utters wisdom, and his tongue speaks judgment.
Psa 37:31  The Law of his God is in his heart; his steps do not slide.

The Word is Wisdom

1Co 1:24  But unto them which are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ the power of God, and the wisdom of God.
Exo 12:39  And they baked the dough which they brought out from Egypt into unleavened cakes. For it was not leavened, because they were driven out from Egypt, and they were not able to delay. And also they had not prepared food for a journey for themselves.

The word for food in the above verse is צדה ‘tsedah’ which is linked to manna in Psalm 78.

Psa 78:24  and He rained on them manna to eat; yea, He gave the grain of the heavens to them.
Psa 78:25  Man ate the bread of the mighty; He sent them food {צדה ‘tsedah’} to the full.

Manna is likened to the Word/Messiah (John 6:31-71).  More on this below.


מצות ‘matsot’ is striped

Isa 53:5  But He was wounded for our transgressions; He was bruised for our iniquities; the chastisement of our peace was upon Him; and with His wounds we ourselves are healed.
1Pe 2:24  who “Himself carried up in His body our sins” onto the tree; that dying to sins, we might live to righteousness, of whom “by His wound you were healed.”
1Pe 2:25  For you were “as sheep going astray,” but now you turned back to the Shepherd and Overseer of your souls. Isa. 53:4-6

מצות ‘matsot’ is pierced

Zec 12:10  And I will pour on the house of David, and on those living in Jerusalem, the Spirit of grace and of prayers. And they shall look on Me whom they have pierced; and they shall mourn for Him, as one mourns for an only son, and they shall be bitter over Him, like the bitterness over the first-born.
Joh 19:37  And again, a different Scripture says, “They shall look at Him whom they have pierced.” Zech. 12:10

The number 2869 links the body of Messiah to Zechariah 12:10.



Zechariah 12:10 also says that they shall look upon me the את ‘aleph tav.’

Zec 12:10  ושׁפכתי על־בית דויד ועל יושׁב ירושׁלם רוח חן ותחנונים והביטו אלי את אשׁר־דקרו וספדו עליו כמספד על־היחיד והמר עליו כהמר על־הבכור׃

Isa 41:4  Who hath wrought and done it, calling the generations from the beginning? I the LORD, the first, and with the last; I am he.
Isa 44:6  Thus saith the LORD the King of Israel, and his redeemer the LORD of hosts; I am the first, and I am the last; and beside me there is no God.
Isa 48:12  Hearken unto me, O Jacob and Israel, my called; I am he; I am the first, I also am the last.
Isa 48:13  Mine hand also hath laid the foundation of the earth, and my right hand hath spanned the heavens: when I call unto them, they stand up together.

Rev 1:8  I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending, saith the Lord, which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty.
Rev 1:11  Saying, I am Alpha and Omega, the first and the last: and, What thou seest, write in a book, and send it unto the seven churches which are in Asia; unto Ephesus, and unto Smyrna, and unto Pergamos, and unto Thyatira, and unto Sardis, and unto Philadelphia, and unto Laodicea.
Rev 21:6  And he said unto me, It is done. I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end. I will give unto him that is athirst of the fountain of the water of life freely.
Rev 22:13  I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end, the first and the last.

 
Manna = Aleph Tav?

 

Wisdom in the Hebrew Alphabet pg 37

Wisdom in the Hebrew Alphabet pg 37

Wisdom in the Hebrew Alphabet pg 37

Psa 102:4  My heart is stricken and dried like grass, so that I forget to eat my bread.

TARGUM
5.     My heart is smitten like grass and will dry up; for I have forgotten the Torah of my instruction.

Deu 8:3  And He has humbled you, and caused you to hunger, and caused you to eat the manna, which you had not known, and your fathers had not known, in order to cause you to know that man shall not live by bread alone, but man shall live by every Word that proceeds from the mouth of Jehovah.
Mat 4:2  And having fasted forty days and forty nights, afterwards He hungered.
Mat 4:3  And coming near to Him, the Tempter said, If You are the Son of God, speak that these stones may become loaves.
Mat 4:4  But answering, He said, It has been written: “Man shall not live by bread alone, but on every Word going out of the mouth of God.”

Deu 8:3  And He has humbled you, and caused you to hunger, and caused you to eat the manna, which you had not known, and your fathers had not known, in order to cause you to know that man shall not live by bread alone, but man shall live by every Word that proceeds {מוצא ‘motsa’} from the mouth of Jehovah.

H4161
môtsâ’
מצא  /  מוצא

This is related to the Hebrew word for unleavened bread

H4682
מצּה
matstsâh
BDB Definition:
1) unleavened (bread, cake), without leaven.

Unleavened Bread is a picture of Messiah.  מצות ‘matsot’ is pierced, bruised and striped which points back to Isaiah 53, where the Right Arm of God is revealed.  The Right Arm of God= the Light of His Face (לחם פנים ‘lechem paniym’)

Psa 44:3  For they did not inherit the land with their own sword; yea, their own arm did not save them. But it was Your right hand and Your arm and the light of Your face, because You favored them.

Further connecting this piercing is seen in His Passion.  The Greek word translated as passion (Acts 1:3) in the New Testament is πάσχω  ‘paschō.’  This word is used in the Septuagint to translate the Hebrew word חלה ‘chalah’ which means a piercing.

Isa 53:3  He is despised and abandoned of men, a Man of pains, and acquainted with sickness. And as it were hiding our faces from Him, He being despised, and we did not value Him.
Isa 53:4  Surely He has borne our sicknesses, and He carried our pain; yet we esteemed Him plagued, smitten by God, and afflicted.
Isa 53:5  But He was wounded for our transgressions; He was bruised for our iniquities; the
chastisement of our peace was upon Him; and with His wounds we ourselves are healed.

מצות ‘matsot’ is without leaven, which Scripture links to sin/lawlessness (Luke 12:1; Matthew 23:28).

Heb 4:15  For we do not have a high priest not being able to sympathize with our weaknesses but One having been tried in all respects according to our likeness, apart from sin.
Heb 7:26  For such a High Priest was fitting for us: holy, harmless, undefiled, and separated from sinners, and having become higher than the heavens;
2Co 5:21  For He made the One who knew no sin to be sin for us, that we might become the righteousness of God in Him.
1Pe 2:22  “who did not sin, nor was guile found in His mouth;” Isa. 53:9

LXX
Isa 53:9  And I will give the wicked for His burial, and the rich for His death; for He practiced no iniquity, nor craft with His mouth.

Isa 53:9  καὶ δώσω τοὺς πονηροὺς ἀντὶ τῆς ταφῆς αὐτοῦ καὶ τοὺς πλουσίους ἀντὶ τοῦ θανάτου αὐτοῦ· ὅτι ἀνομίαν οὐκ ἐποίησεν, οὐδὲ εὑρέθη δόλος ἐν τῷ στόματι αὐτοῦ.

Isa 53:9  And He appointed Him His grave with the wicked, but He was with a rich man in His death; though He had done no violence, and deceit was not in His mouth.
Heb 9:28  so Christ having been once offered “to bear the sins of many,” Christ shall appear a second time without sin to those expecting Him for salvation. Isa. 53:12
Deu 16:3  You shall eat with it no leaven. You shall eat unleavened bread with it seven days, even the bread of affliction. For you came out of the land of Egypt in haste, so that you may remember the day that you came out of the land of Egypt all the days of your life.
Isa 53:4  Surely He has borne our sicknesses, and He carried our pain; yet we esteemed Him plagued, smitten by God, and afflicted.
Isa 53:5  But He was wounded for our transgressions; He was bruised for our iniquities; the chastisement of our peace was upon Him; and with His wounds we ourselves are healed.
Isa 53:6  All we like sheep have gone astray; we have each one turned to his own way; and Jehovah made meet in Him the iniquity of all of us.
Isa 53:7  He was oppressed, and He was afflicted, but He did not open His mouth. He was led as a lamb to the slaughter; and as a ewe before her shearers is dumb, so He opened not His mouth.

Examination of the Lamb

Exo 12:3  Speak to all the congregation of Israel, saying, On the tenth of this month, they shall each take for themselves an animal of the flock for a father’s house, a flock animal for a house.
Exo 12:4  And if the house is too small for a flock animal, he and his neighbor next to his house shall take according to the number of souls, each one according to the mouth of his eating, you shall count concerning the flock animal.
Exo 12:5  A flock animal, a male without blemish, a yearling, shall be to you. You shall take from the sheep or from the goats.
Exo 12:6  And it shall be for you to keep until the fourteenth day of this month. And all the assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it between the evenings.

Exo 12:5  Your lamb shall be without blemish, a male of the first year: ye shall take it out from the sheep, or from the goats:

The Passover Lamb was a foreshadowing of Jesus of Nazareth.

1Co 5:7  Then purge out the old leaven so that you may be a new lump, even as you are unleavened. For also Christ our Passover was sacrificed for us.

Rom 3:24  being justified freely by His grace through the redemption in Christ Jesus,
Rom 3:25  whom God set forth as a propitiation through faith in His blood, as a demonstration of His righteousness through the passing over of the sins that had taken place before, in the forbearance of God,
Rom 3:26  for a demonstration of His righteousness in the present time, for His being just and justifying the one that is of the faith of Jesus.

The Greek word ‘passing over’ in verse 25 is πάρεσις ‘paresis’ which is translated in the King James Version as remission.  Webster defines remission as a ‘release,’ ‘forgiveness,’ or ‘pardon.’  The giving up of the punishment due to a crime.

Messiah is the Lamb of God, sacrificed for the sins of mankind (Isaiah 53:7; John 1:29; 1 Peter 1:19; Revelation 5:6, 12).

Isa 53:7  He was oppressed, and he was afflicted, yet he opened not his mouth: he is brought as a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearers is dumb, so he openeth not his mouth.

Joh 1:29  The next day John seeth Jesus coming unto him, and saith, Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world.
Joh 1:36  And looking upon Jesus as he walked, he saith, Behold the Lamb of God!

1Pe 1:18  Forasmuch as ye know that ye were not redeemed with corruptible things, as silver and gold, from your vain conversation received by tradition from your fathers;
1Pe 1:19  But with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot:
1Pe 1:20  Who verily was foreordained before the foundation of the world, but was manifest in these last times for you,
1Pe 1:21  Who by him do believe in God, that raised him up from the dead, and gave him glory; that your faith and hope might be in God.

Rev 5:6  And I beheld, and, lo, in the midst of the throne and of the four beasts, and in the midst of the elders, stood a Lamb as it had been slain, having seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven Spirits of God sent forth into all the earth.
Rev 5:7  And he came and took the book out of the right hand of him that sat upon the throne.
Rev 5:8  And when he had taken the book, the four beasts and four and twenty elders fell down before the Lamb, having every one of them harps, and golden vials full of odours, which are the prayers of saints.
Rev 5:9  And they sung a new song, saying, Thou art worthy to take the book, and to open the seals thereof: for thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us to God by thy blood out of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation;
Rev 5:10  And hast made us unto our God kings and priests: and we shall reign on the earth.
Rev 5:11  And I beheld, and I heard the voice of many angels round about the throne and the beasts and the elders: and the number of them was ten thousand times ten thousand, and thousands of thousands;
Rev 5:12  Saying with a loud voice, Worthy is the Lamb that was slain to receive power, and riches, and wisdom, and strength, and honour, and glory, and blessing.
Rev 5:13  And every creature which is in heaven, and on the earth, and under the earth, and such as are in the sea, and all that are in them, heard I saying, Blessing, and honour, and glory, and power, be unto him that sitteth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb for ever and ever.
Rev 5:14  And the four beasts said, Amen. And the four and twenty elders fell down and worshipped him that liveth for ever and ever.

The lamb was hidden for four days and examined for blemishes, and then brought forth for sacrifice.

Jesus came into Jerusalem riding on a donkey (Matthew 21:9), which was a proclamation of Him being King (Zechariah 9:9), and then was examined for 4 days, just as the Passover Lambs of old.

High Priest examined Him
Joh 18:12  Then the band and the captain and officers of the Jews took Jesus, and bound him,
Joh 18:13  And led him away to Annas first; for he was father in law to Caiaphas, which was the high priest that same year.

The Chief Priests and Elders examined Him
Mat 21:23  And He having come into the temple, the chief priests and elders of the people came near to Him as He was teaching, saying, By what authority do You do these things? And who gave this authority to You?
Mat 22:15  Then going, the Pharisees took counsel so as they might trap Him in words.
Mat 22:16  And they sent to Him their disciples with the Herodians, saying, Teacher, we know that You are true, and teach the way of God in truth, and it does not concern You about anyone, for You do not look to the face of men.
Mat 22:17  Then tell us, what do You think? Is it lawful to give tribute to Caesar, or not?

The Sadducees examined Him
Mat 22:23  On that day, Sadducees, who say there is no resurrection, came to Him. And they questioned Him,
Mat 22:24  saying, Teacher, Moses said, If any should die not having children, his brother shall marry his wife, and shall raise up seed to his brother. Deut. 25:5
Mat 22:25  And seven brothers were with us. And having married, the first expired, and not having seed left his wife to his brother.
Mat 22:26  In the same way also the second, and the third, until the seven.
Mat 22:27  And last of all, the woman also died.
Mat 22:28  Then in the resurrection, of which of the seven will she be wife? For all had her.

The Pharisees examined Him
Mat 22:34  But hearing that He had silenced the Sadducees, the Pharisees were gathered together.
Mat 22:35  And one of them, a lawyer, questioned Him, testing Him, and saying,
Mat 22:36  Teacher, which is the great commandment in the Law?

Mat 22:37  And Jesus said to him, “You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind.” Deut. 6:5
Mat 22:38  This is the first and great commandment.
Mat 22:39  And the second is like it: “You shall love your neighbor as yourself.” Lev. 19:18
Mat 22:40  On these two commandments all the Law and the Prophets hang.
Mat 22:41  But the Pharisees having been gathered, Jesus questioned them,
Mat 22:42  saying, What do you think about the Christ? Whose son is He? They say to Him, David’s.
Mat 22:43  He said to them, Then how does David in Spirit call Him Lord, saying,
Mat 22:44  “The Lord said to my Lord, Sit off My right until I should put Your hostile ones as a footstool for Your feet?” LXX-Psa. 109:1; MT-Psa. 110:1
Mat 22:45  Then if David calls Him Lord, how is He his son?
Mat 22:46  And no one was able to answer Him a word, nor did anyone dare from that day to question Him any more.

Pilate examined Him
Mat 27:1  And early morning occurring, all the chief priests and the elders of the people took counsel together against Jesus, so as to put Him to death.
Mat 27:2  And binding Him, they led Him away and delivered Him to Pontius Pilate the governor.
Mat 27:11  And Jesus stood before the governor. And the governor questioned Him, saying, Are You the King of the Jews? And Jesus said to him, You say it.
Mat 27:12  And when He was accused by the chief priests and the elders, He answered nothing.
Mat 27:24  And seeing that nothing is gained, but rather an uproar occurs, taking water, Pilate washed his hands before the crowd, saying, I am innocent of the blood of this righteous one; you will see.
Joh 19:4  Pilate therefore went forth again, and saith unto them, Behold, I bring him forth to you, that ye may know that I find no fault in him.

He was found with no blemishes
1Pe 1:18  Forasmuch as ye know that ye were not redeemed with corruptible things, as silver and gold, from your vain conversation received by tradition from your fathers;
1Pe 1:19  But with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot:

Palm Sunday’

4 Days before Passover Jesus rode into Jerusalem

Mat 21:9  And the crowd, the ones going before and the ones following, were crying out, saying, Hosanna to the Son of David! “Blessed is He coming in the name of the Lord”! Hosanna in the highest! Psa. 118:26
Mat 21:10  And as He entered into Jerusalem, all the city was shaken, saying, Who is this?
Mat 21:11  And the crowds said, This is Jesus, the Prophet, the One from Nazareth of Galilee.
Mat 21:12  And Jesus entered into the temple of God and threw out all those selling and buying in the temple. And He overthrew the tables of the money changers and the seats of those selling the doves.
Mat 21:13  And He said to them, It has been written, “My house shall be called a house of prayer,” but you have “made it a den of plunderers.” Isa. 56:7; Jer. 7:11

Jesus was in Bethany before His ‘triumphal entry’ (Luke 19:29) and returned there afterwards (Matthew 21:17).  Messiah ascended from Bethany as well.   Bethany means house of dates, which come from date palm trees.  It was at the ‘triumphal entry’ of Messiah, proclaiming Him as King, that branches of the palm tree were waived.

Luk 19:29  And it happened as He drew near to Bethphage and Bethany toward the Mount called Of Olives, He sent two of the disciples,
Luk 19:30  saying, Go into the village opposite you, in which having entered you will find a colt having been tied up, on which no one of men ever yet sat. Untying it, bring it.
Luk 19:31  And if anyone asks, Why do you untie it? you shall say to them, The Lord has need of it.
Luk 19:32  And going, those having been sent found as He told them.
Luk 19:33  And as they were untying the colt, its owners said to them, Why do you untie the colt?
Luk 19:34  And they said, The Lord has need of it.
Luk 19:35  And they led it to Jesus. And throwing their garments on the colt, they put Jesus on it.
Luk 19:36  And as He went, they were spreading their garments in the highway.
Luk 19:37  And as He was already drawing near to the descent of the Mount of Olives, all the multitude of the disciples began rejoicing, to praise God with a loud voice concerning all the works of power which they saw,
Luk 19:38  saying, “Blessed is the One coming in the name of the Lord,” the King. Peace in Heaven, and glory in the highest! Psa. 118:26
Joh 12:12  On the morrow, coming to the Feast, hearing that Jesus is coming to Jerusalem, a great crowd
Joh 12:13  took palm branches and went out to a meeting with Him, and they were crying out, Hosanna! “Being blessed is the One coming in the name of the Lord, the King of Israel!” Psa. 118:26
Joh 12:14  And finding an ass colt, Jesus sat on it, even as it had been written,
Joh 12:15  “Do not fear,” “daughter of Zion. Behold, your King comes” “sitting on” “the foal of an ass.” Isa. 40:9; Zech. 9:9

Bethany is where Messiah ascended into Heaven.  His ascension is linked with Him being King.

Luk 24:50  He led them out as far as to Bethany. And lifting up His hands, He blessed them.
Luk 24:51  And it happened as He blessed them, He withdrew from them and was carried into Heaven.
Psa 68:18  Thou hast ascended on high, thou hast led captivity captive: thou hast received gifts for men; yea, for the rebellious also, that the LORD God might dwell among them.
Heb 1:3  who being the shining splendor of His glory, and the express image of His essence, and upholding all things by the Word of His power, having made purification of our sins through Himself, He sat down on the right of the Majesty on high, Psa. 110:1
Heb 1:4  having become so much better than the angels, He has inherited a name more excellent than they.
Heb 1:5  For to which of the angels did He ever say, “You are My Son; today I have begotten You”? And again, “I will be a Father to Him, and He shall be a Son to Me.” Psalm 2:7
Psa 2:6  Yea, I have set My king on My holy mount on Zion.
Psa 2:7  I will declare concerning the statute of Jehovah: He said to Me, You are My Son. Today I have begotten You.
Rev 7:9  After these things I saw, and behold, a great crowd which no one was able to number them, out of every nation, even tribes and peoples and tongues, standing in front of the throne, and before the Lamb, having been clothed with white robes, and in their hands palm branches.
Rev 7:10  And they cry with a great voice, saying, Salvation to our God sitting on the throne, and to the Lamb.

70 Palms for 70 nations

Exo 15:27  And they came to Elim. And there were twelve springs of water and seventy palm trees. And they camped by the waters.
Deu 32:8  when the Most High divided to the nations their inheritance; when He separated the sons of Adam, He set up the bounds of the peoples, according to the number of the sons of Israel.

The Hebrew word for the branch of a palm tree is כפה ‘kapheh’ which comes from the root כף ‘kaph’ which means the palm of the hand.

The hand = body of Messiah:  Lines drawn into the ‘hand’ of the Most High…
Isa 49:15  Can a woman forget her suckling child, from pitying the son of her womb? Yes, these may forget, yet I will surely not forget you.
Isa 49:16  Behold, I have carved you on the palms of My hands; your walls are always before Me.

WALLS=Lines on Hands=12 Walls of Israel  (Revelation 21:12-27).  12 lines on the 4 fingers=12 tribes, 12 walls.

One word for examine in Hebrew, חקר ‘chaqar,’ comes from the root כר which means the palm of a man, the palm being a hollow place.  כר is also translated as lamb, as a lamb feeds in a pasture in a hollow.

Another word for examine in Hebrew is בחן ‘bachan’ which has the meaning of examination through trial and scrutiny.  בחן ‘bachan’ comes from the root בח which means to select a choice one for sacrifice.  Who is the chosen one?  Messiah.

Isa 42:1  Behold My Servant; I will uphold Him; My Elect in whom My soul delights! I have put My Spirit on Him; He shall bring forth justice to the nations.
Luk 23:35  And the people stood watching. And the rulers with them also scoffed, saying, He saved others; let Him save Himself, if this One is the Christ, the Elect of God.

 

The Blood of the Lamb Saves from Wrath

Exo 12:13  And the blood shall be to you for a token upon the houses where ye are: and when I see the blood, I will pass over you, and the plague shall not be upon you to destroy you, when I smite the land of Egypt.

The blood of the Passover lamb was a foreshadowing of the blood of Messiah, which saves mankind from wrath.

Rom 5:8  But God commendeth his love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us.
Rom 5:9  Much more then, being now justified by his blood, we shall be saved from wrath through him.
Rom 5:10  For if, when we were enemies, we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son, much more, being reconciled, we shall be saved by his life.

Rom 8:1  There is therefore now no condemnation to them which are in Christ Jesus, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit.
Joh 5:24  Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that heareth my word, and believeth on him that sent me, hath everlasting life, and shall not come into condemnation; but is passed from death unto life.
1Th 1:10  And to wait for his Son from heaven, whom he raised from the dead, even Jesus, which delivered us from the wrath to come.

The blood of the lamb was a token/sign which brought redemption to Israel.  The blood of Jesus of Nazareth is a sign which brings redemption to mankind.  It is the seal of believers that we belong to God.

Rev 1:5  And from Jesus Christ, who is the faithful witness, and the first begotten of the dead, and the prince of the kings of the earth. Unto him that loved us, and washed us from our sins in his own blood,
Rev 1:6  And hath made us kings and priests unto God and his Father; to him be glory and dominion for ever and ever. Amen.

2Ti 2:19  Nevertheless the foundation of God standeth sure, having this seal, The Lord knoweth them that are his. And, Let every one that nameth the name of Christ depart from iniquity.

Eph 1:3  Blessed is the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who blessed us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenlies with Christ,
Eph 1:4  even as He elected us in Him before the foundation of the world, for us to be holy and without blemish before Him in love,
Eph 1:5  predestinating us to adoption through Jesus Christ to Himself, according to the good pleasure of His will,
Eph 1:6  to the praise of the glory of His grace in which He favored us in the One having been loved,
Eph 1:7  in whom we have redemption through His blood, the remission of deviations, according to the riches of His grace
Eph 1:8  which He caused to abound toward us in all wisdom and understanding,
Eph 1:9  making known to us the mystery of His will, according to His good pleasure which He purposed in Himself,
Eph 1:10  for the administration of the fullness of the times to head up all things in Christ, both the things in the heavens, and the things on earth, in Him,
Eph 1:11  in whom we also have been chosen to an inheritance, being predestinated according to the purpose of the One working all things according to the counsel of His own will,
Eph 1:12  for us to be to the praise of His glory, the ones who had previously trusted in Christ;
Eph 1:13  in whom also you, hearing the Word of Truth, the gospel of your salvation, in whom also believing you were sealed with the Holy Spirit of promise,
Eph 1:14  who is an earnest of our inheritance, to the redemption of the purchased possession, to the praise of His glory.

Leaven

leaven 2

Exo 12:15  You shall eat unleavened bread seven days. Indeed, on the first day you shall cause leaven to cease from your houses. For anyone eating any leaven, that soul shall be cut off from Israel, from the first day until the seventh day.

Exo 13:6  Seven days you shall eat unleavened bread, and on the seventh day keep a feast to Jehovah.

1Co 5:8  Therefore let us keep the feast, not with old leaven, neither with the leaven of malice and wickedness; but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth.

Mat 16:6  And Jesus said to them, Watch and take heed from the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees.
Mat 16:7  And they reasoned among themselves, saying, Because we did not take loaves.
Mat 16:8  And knowing, Jesus said to them, Why do you reason among yourselves because you took no loaves, little-faiths?
Mat 16:9  Do you not perceive nor recall the five loaves of the five thousand, and how many hand baskets you took up?
Mat 16:10  Nor the seven loaves of the four thousand, and how many lunch baskets you took up?
Mat 16:11  How do you not perceive that it was not about loaves that I said to you to take heed from the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees?
Mat 16:12  Then they knew that He did not say to take heed from the leaven of bread, but from the doctrine of the Pharisees and Sadducees.

Leaven comes from two Hebrew words, the first being:

This is what Paul refers to in his letter to the Corinthians were he says to get rid of the leaven of wickedness.  Paul used the word:

G4189
πονηρία
ponēria
Thayer Definition:
1) depravity, iniquity, wickedness
2) malice
3) evil purposes and desires

Webster’s dictionary

Wicked
WICKED, a. [The primary sense is to wind and turn, or to depart, to fall away.]

Here wickedness is connected with leavened bread that is twisted and turned in a kneading bowl.

A related word in Hebrew is:

Twisting of the Scriptures

2Pe 3:15  And think of the long-suffering of our Lord as salvation, as also our beloved brother Paul wrote to you, according to the wisdom given to him;
2Pe 3:16  as also in all his epistles, speaking in them concerning these things, in which are some things hard to understand, which the unlearned and unsettled pervert*, as also they do the rest of the Scriptures, to their own destruction.

*G4761
στρεβλόω
strebloō
Thayer Definition:
1) to twist, turn awry

This word is used in the LXX to translate the following Hebrew word:


This word comes from the root:

1Co 5:8  So let us keep the feast, not with old leaven, nor with leaven of malice* and of evil, but with unleavened bread of sincerity and truth.

G2549
κακία
kakia
Thayer Definition:
1) malignity, malice, ill-will, desire to injure
2) wickedness, depravity
2a) wickedness that is not ashamed to break laws
3) evil, trouble

This concept of wickedness being equated with lawlessness is seen in how the following verse in translated into the English.

2Th 2:8  And then shall that Wicked (ἀνομος ‘anomos’ – lawlessness) be revealed, whom the Lord shall consume with the spirit of his mouth, and shall destroy with the brightness of his coming:

Jay P. Green Literal Version
2Th 2:8  And then “the Lawless One” will be revealed, “whom” “the Lord” “will consume” “by the spirit of His mouth,” and will bring to nought by the brightness of His presence. Isa. 11:4

This is further seen in the first Psalm.  The righteous meditate on the Torah and bear forth fruit of the Spirit.  The wicked are not so.

Psa 1:1  Blessed is the man who has not walked in the counsel of the ungodly, and has not stood in the way of sinners, and has not sat in the seat of scorners.
Psa 1:2  But his delight is only in the Law of Jehovah, and he meditates in His Law day and night.
Psa 1:3  And he shall be like a tree planted by the rivulets of waters, which will give its fruit in its seasons, and its leaf will not wither, and all which he does will prosper.
Psa 1:4  Not so are the wicked, but they are only as chaff which the wind drives about.
Psa 1:5  On account of this the wicked shall not stand in the judgment, nor sinners in the congregation of the righteous.
Psa 1:6  For Jehovah is knowing the way of the righteous, and the way of the wicked shall perish.

The 2nd Hebrew word translated as leaven is:

Exo 12:15  You shall eat unleavened bread seven days. Indeed, on the first day you shall cause leaven {שאר ‘se`or’} to cease from your houses. For anyone eating any leaven {חמץ ‘chamets’}, that soul shall be cut off from Israel, from the first day until the seventh day.

Hypocrisy

Luk 12:1  In the mean time, when there were gathered together an innumerable multitude of people, insomuch that they trode one upon another, he began to say unto his disciples first of all, Beware ye of the leaven of the Pharisees, which is hypocrisy.

A hypocrite is an actor or one hiding the true self with a false exterior.  Wolves in sheep’s clothing, whitewashed tombs etc..

Mat 23:28  So you also indeed outwardly appear righteous to men, but within are full of hypocrisy (ὑποκρισις – hupokrisis) and lawlessness.

Jas 5:12  But before all things, my brothers, do not swear, neither by the heaven, nor by the earth, nor any other oath. But let your yes be yes, and the no, no, that you may not fall under judgment (kjv condemnation-hupokrisis).

Gal 2:13  And also the rest of the Jews dissembled with him, so as even Barnabas was led away with their dissembling (kjv dissimulation-hupokrisis).

Vincent Word Studies – Galatians 2:13

With their dissimulation (αὐτῶν τῇ ὑποκρίσει)
Not to or over to their dissimulation. Paul uses a strong word, which is employed only in 1Ti_4:2. The kindred verb ὑποκρίνεσθαι to play a part, and the noun ὑποκριτής hypocrisy do not occur in his letters. Their act was hypocrisy, because it was a concealment of their own more liberal conviction, and an open profession of still adhering to the narrow Pharisaic view. It was “a practical denial of their better spiritual insight”

G5272
ὑπόκρισις
hupokrisis
Thayer Definition:
1) an answering
2) an answer
3) the acting of a stage player
4) dissimulation, hypocrisy
Part of Speech: noun feminine
A Related Word by Thayer’s/Strong’s Number: from G5271

G5271
ὑποκρίνομαι
hupokrinomai
Thayer Definition:
1) to take up another’s statements in reference to what one has decided for one’s self (This is the essence of religion…people repeating what their leaders tell them to believe without finding out the truth for themselves.  By definition, religion is an exterior manifestation which does not always reveal that which is within)
1a) to reply, answer
2) to make answer (speak) on the stage
2a) to impersonate anyone, play a part
3) to simulate, feign, pretend
Part of Speech: verb
A Related Word by Thayer’s/Strong’s Number: middle voice from G5259 (under) and G2919 (to separate, select, choose, be of the opinion, determine, decree, judge, arbiters in matters of life, passing judgment on the deeds and words of others, rule, govern)

In essence, the word hypocrite means to be under the headship of man.  This is why the word means to be a play actor.  When you are under the headship of man, you are not under the headship of Messiah and walking/yoked with Him.  Therefore, your righteousness is that of man and your fear of God is that taught of man.  It is not something within you but it is merely an outward appearance or mask put on in accord with the rulings of the head you are following.  This is why Jesus begins His rebuke of the Pharisees in Matthew 23 with telling the people not to have men as their leaders and heads.  Our only Head is to be Messiah.  Our only righteousness comes from Him.

Interestingly, the first word mentioned above that is translated as leaven {שאר ‘se`or’} comes from the root word סר ‘sar’ which means a ruler.  A ruler is one who turns ס the head ר of the people in the direction he desires.

Mat 6:2  Therefore, when you do merciful deeds, do not trumpet before you as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, so that they may be glorified by men. Truly I say to you, They have their reward.

This Greek word is translated in the LXX from the following Hebrew word:

G5273
hupo krites     H2611    chaneph


Pro 11:9  The ungodly (KJV hypocrite) is corrupting his neighbor with his mouth, but the just is delivered by knowledge.
Isa 9:16  For this people’s leaders led them astray, and its guided ones are swallowed up.
Isa 9:17  For this the Lord shall not rejoice over their young men, nor have pity on their orphans and widows; for everyone is a hypocrite and an evildoer; and every mouth speaks foolishness. In all this His anger does not turn away, but His hand is still stretched out.

Psa 35:16  with the ungodly (KJV hypocritical) they were mockers for a cake (KJV feasts), gnashing their teeth on me.

Jer 3:2  Lift up your eyes on the bare heights and see. Where have you not been lain with? By the highways you have sat for them, like an Arab in the desert. And you have defiled (חנף ‘chaneph’) the land with your fornications and with your evil.
Jer 3:11  And Jehovah said to me, The apostate Israel has justified herself more than treacherous
(בגד ‘beged’)* Judah.

This is interesting to note.  Treachery is associated with clothing…a wolf in sheep’s clothing.  Appearing righteous on the outside but inside is full of wickedness and leaven.

Jesus’ teachings on the Pharisees

Mat 23:1  Then Jesus spoke to the crowd and to His disciples,
Mat 23:2  saying, The scribes and the Pharisees have sat down on Moses’ seat.
Mat 23:3  Then all things, whatever they tell you to keep, keep and do. But do not do according to their works, for they say, and do not do.
Mat 23:4  For they bind heavy and hard to bear burdens, and lay them on the shoulders of men, but they do not desire to move them with their finger.
Mat 23:5  And they do all their works to be seen by men. And they make their phylacteries broad and enlarge the borders of their robes.
Mat 23:6  And they love the first couch in the suppers, and the first seats in the synagogues,
Mat 23:7  and the greetings in the markets, and to be called by men, Rabbi, Rabbi.
Mat 23:8  But do not you be called Rabbi, for One is your Leader, the Christ, and you are all brothers.
Mat 23:9  And call no one your father on earth, for One is your Father, the One in Heaven.
Mat 23:10  Nor be called leaders, for One is your Leader, the Christ.
Mat 23:11  But the greater of you shall be your servant.
Mat 23:12  And whoever will exalt himself shall be humbled, and whoever will humble himself shall be exalted.
Mat 23:13  But woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you shut up the kingdom of Heaven before men; for you do not enter, nor do you allow those entering to go in.
Mat 23:14  Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you devour the houses of widows, and pray at length as a pretext. Because of this you will receive more abundant judgment.
Mat 23:15  Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you go about the sea and the dry land to make one proselyte; and when he has become so, you make him twofold more a son of Hell than yourselves.
Mat 23:16  Woe to you, blind guides, who say, Whoever swears by the Holy Place, it is nothing; but whoever swears by the gold of the Holy Place is a debtor.
Mat 23:17  Fools and blind! For which is greater, the gold, or the Holy Place that sanctifies the gold?
Mat 23:18  And you say, Whoever swears by the altar, it is nothing; but whoever swears by the gift on it, he is a debtor.
Mat 23:19  Fools and blind! For which is greater, the gift, or the altar that sanctifies the gift?
Mat 23:20  Then the one swearing by the altar swears by it, and by all things on it.
Mat 23:21  And the one swearing by the Holy Place swears by it, and by the One dwelling in it.
Mat 23:22  And the one swearing by Heaven swears by the throne of God, and by the One sitting on it.
Mat 23:23  Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you pay tithes of mint and dill and cummin, and you have left aside the weightier matters of the Law: judgment, and mercy, and faith. It was right to do these, and not to have left those aside.
Mat 23:24  Blind guides, straining out the gnat, but swallowing the camel!
Mat 23:25  Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you cleanse the outside of the cup and of the dish, but within they are full of robbery and excess.
Mat 23:26  Blind Pharisee! First cleanse the inside of the cup and of the dish, that the outside of them may become clean also.
Mat 23:27  Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you are like whitened graves which outwardly indeed appear beautiful, but within are full of bones of the dead, and of all uncleanness.
Mat 23:28  So you also indeed outwardly appear righteous to men, but within are full of hypocrisy and lawlessness.
Mat 23:29  Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you build the tombs of the prophets, and adorn the tombs of the righteous.
Mat 23:30  And you say, If we had been in the days of our fathers, we would not have been partakers with them in the blood of the prophets.
Mat 23:31  So you witness to yourselves that you are the sons of those who murdered the prophets.
Mat 23:32  And you fill up the measure of your fathers.
Mat 23:33  Serpents! Offspring of vipers! How shall you escape the judgment of Hell?
Mat 23:34  Because of this, behold, I send to you prophets and wise ones and scribes. And some of them you will kill and crucify, and some of them you will flog in your synagogues and will persecute from city to city;
Mat 23:35  so that should come on you all the righteous blood poured out on the earth, from the blood of righteous Abel to the blood of Zechariah the son of Berechiah whom you murdered between the Holy Place and the altar.
Mat 23:36  Truly I say to you, All these things will come on this generation.
Mat 23:37  Jerusalem, Jerusalem, the one killing the prophets and stoning those sent to her. How often I desired to gather your children in the way a bird gathers her chicks under her wings! And you did not desire it.
Mat 23:38  Behold, “your house is left to you desolate.”
Jer. 22:5
Mat 23:39  For I say to you, In no way shall you see Me from now on, until you say, “Blessed is He who comes in the name of the Lord.” Psa. 118:26

Mat 16:6  Then Jesus said unto them, Take heed and beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees.
Mat 16:12  Then understood they how that he bade them not beware of the leaven of bread, but of the doctrine of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees.
Luk 12:1  In the mean time, when there were gathered together an innumerable multitude of people, insomuch that they trode one upon another, he began to say unto his disciples first of all, Beware ye of the leaven of the Pharisees, which is hypocrisy.
Mat 15:4  For God commanded, saying, Honour thy father and mother: and, He that curseth father or mother, let him die the death.
Mat 15:5  But ye say, Whosoever shall say to his father or his mother, It is a gift, by whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me;
Mat 15:6  And honour not his father or his mother, he shall be free. Thus have ye made the commandment of God of none effect by your tradition.
Mat 15:7  Ye hypocrites, well did Esaias prophesy of you, saying,
Mat 15:8  This people draweth nigh unto me with their mouth, and honoureth me with their lips; but their heart is far from me.
Mat 15:9  But in vain they do worship me, teaching for doctrines the commandments of men.
Mat 15:12  Then came his disciples, and said unto him, Knowest thou that the Pharisees were offended, after they heard this saying?
Mat 15:13  But he answered and said, Every plant, which my heavenly Father hath not planted, shall be rooted up.
Mat 15:14  Let them alone: they be blind leaders of the blind. And if the blind lead the blind, both shall fall into the ditch.

Garments of white versus whitewashed tombs

Mat 23:27  Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you are like whitened graves which outwardly indeed appear beautiful, but within are full of bones of the dead, and of all uncleanness.
Mat 23:28  So you also indeed outwardly appear righteous to men, but within are full of hypocrisy and lawlessness.

Righteousness can ONLY come from Messiah Jesus

Rom 3:10  according as it has been written, “There is not a righteous one, not even one!”

Luk 16:15  And He said to them, You are those justifying yourselves before men, but God knows your hearts; for the thing highly prized among men is a hateful thing before God.
Pro 30:12  a generation pure in its own eyes, and yet not washed from its own filth.

Isa 64:6  But we are all as an unclean thing, and all our righteousnesses are as filthy rags; and we all do fade as a leaf; and our iniquities, like the wind, have taken us away.

False righteousness is as unclean rags.  The only righteousness we can have that is acceptable in the sight of God is the blood of the lamb.

Exo 12:22  And take a bunch of hyssop and dip in the blood in the basin. And touch some of the blood in the basin to the lintel and on the two doorposts. And you shall not go out, anyone from the door of his house until morning.

Hyssop, washing & white garments

Psa 51:2  Wash me completely from my iniquity, and cleanse me from my sin.
Psa 51:7  Purge me with hyssop, and I shall be clean; wash me, and I shall be whiter than snow.

Isa 1:16  Wash yourselves, purify yourselves. Put away the evil of your doings from My sight; stop doing evil.
Isa 1:17  Learn to do good, seek justice, straighten the oppressor, judge the orphan, strive for the widow.
Isa 1:18  Come now and let us reason together, says Jehovah: Though your sins are as scarlet, they shall be white as snow; though they are red as the crimson, they shall be like wool.

The LORD our Righteousness

Jer 23:5  Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will raise unto David a righteous Branch, and a King shall reign and prosper, and shall execute judgment and justice in the earth.
Jer 23:6  In his days Judah shall be saved, and Israel shall dwell safely: and this is his name whereby he shall be called, THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS.

Isa 54:17  No weapon that is formed against thee shall prosper; and every tongue that shall rise against thee in judgment thou shalt condemn. This is the heritage of the servants of the LORD, and their righteousness is of me, saith the LORD.

1Co 1:30  But of him are ye in Christ Jesus, who of God is made unto us wisdom, and righteousness, and sanctification, and redemption:
Phi 3:9  And be found in him, not having mine own righteousness, which is of the law, but that which is through the faith of Christ, the righteousness which is of God by faith:

Isa 61:10  I will greatly rejoice in the LORD, my soul shall be joyful in my God; for he hath clothed me with the garments of salvation, he hath covered me with the robe of righteousness, as a bridegroom decketh himself with ornaments, and as a bride adorneth herself with her jewels.
Rom 13:14  But put ye on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make not provision for the flesh, to fulfil the lusts thereof.
Gal 3:27  For as many of you as have been baptized into Christ have put on Christ.

Isa 1:16  Wash yourselves, purify yourselves. Put away the evil of your doings from My sight; stop doing evil. (baptism)
Isa 1:17  Learn to do good, seek justice, straighten the oppressor*, judge the orphan, strive for the widow. (walking in the Spirit/obedience)
Isa 1:18  Come now and let us reason together, says Jehovah: Though your sins are as scarlet, they shall be white as snow; though they are red as the crimson, they shall be like wool.

The word for oppressor in the above verse is חמץ ‘chamots’ meaning soured.


This brings forth a deeper meaning of why Messiah warned believers of the leaven of the Pharisees.  Throughout history, the greatest oppressions have come as a result of religion and religious leaders.  Those who justify themselves because they have outwardly righteous garments.  Inside they are full of wickedness and lawlessness and do not know that their garments are filthy and stinking in the eyes of the Most High.  It is during the season of unleavened bread that we are to seek to rid ourselves of hypocrisy/leaven and the false teachings/false religious authority that we have allowed to dominate our lives.  Jesus alone is our righteousness.  He alone is our salvation.  He alone is our hope.   He alone is what unites us through the covenant.  Not man.  Not religion.  Not doctrine.

Leaven & Zeal

In Greek, the word for leaven is ζυμόω ‘zumoō’ which comes from the root word ζέω ‘zeo’ which means to boil with heat, fervency in the spirit or zeal.

In Greek, the word for leaven is ζυμόω ‘zumoō’ which comes from the root word ζέω ‘zeo’ which means to boil with heat, fervency in the spirit or zeal.

Zeal can be good or bad depending upon the source, God or the carnal flesh.  Messiah offered Himself for us that we might be zealous for good works.

Tit 2:13  Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ;
Tit 2:14  Who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify unto himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works.

Zealous in love or zealous in hate (envy)

“Unity in the body of Christ does not rest on uniformity, but on our common ‘blood,’ which is the blood of Christ.  We are now members of one family, and that identity cannot be taken from us, no matter how much we disagree or quarrel”. (The Gospel in Human Contexts – Paul Hiebert pg 193)

Division comes as a result of man’s carnal nature inherited from the first Adam when he partook of the tree of knowledge of good and evil.  Adam was given dominion over the earth, or headship (Genesis 1:26) but when he allowed the serpent to creep into the garden and partook of the fruit of which he was commanded not to, he forfeited this dominion (Luke 4:6).  Messiah Jesus overcame the dominion of the enemy (Colossians 2:15; Acts 2:23-36) and is now the only Head on this earth (Colossians 1:18; Ephesians 5:23; Psalm 18:43).  Today we see division amongst men because they put other men as their heads.   We must not submit to other men as Jesus alone is our head and we are all brethren (Matthew 23:8) called to serve one another in love (Galatians 5:13).

We must stop appointing men as our heads and dividing into little cliques based upon the knowledge and doctrine of men.  We must stop accusing one another over doctrine and cutting off other members of the body of Messiah because they don’t agree with us in every doctrine.

1Co 1:12  Now this I say, that every one of you saith, I am of Paul; and I of Apollos; and I of Cephas; and I of Christ.
1Co 1:13  Is Christ divided? was Paul crucified for you? or were ye baptized in the name of Paul?
1Co 3:3  For ye are yet carnal: for whereas there is among you envying, and strife, and divisions, are ye not carnal, and walk as men?
1Co 3:4  For while one saith, I am of Paul; and another, I am of Apollos; are ye not carnal?

The word for “envying” in 1 Corinthians 3:3 is ζῆλος ‘zēlos’ which also means zealousness.  Zealousness for God’s truth is great (Revelation 3:19; Titus 2:14), but we must be careful that this zealousness does not turn into carnal envy.  Although we have been given God’s Spirit, we still have sin dwelling in our carnal flesh (Romans 7:11, 17-18).  Carnality is carnality whether or not it is disguised as religion or not.  Sadly, many times our zealousness for God can be used by satan to lead us into persecution of one another in the guise of religious zeal (Acts 22:3-4; Philippians 3:6; Romans 10:2-4).

Jas 3:13  Who is a wise man and endued with knowledge among you? let him shew out of a good conversation his works with meekness of wisdom.
Jas 3:14  But if ye have bitter envying
{ζῆλος ‘zēlos’} and strife in your hearts, glory not, and lie not against the truth.
Jas 3:15  This wisdom descendeth not from above, but is earthly, sensual, devilish.
Jas 3:16  For where envying and strife is, there is confusion and every evil work.
Jas 3:17  But the wisdom that is from above is first pure, then peaceable, gentle, and easy to be intreated, full of mercy and good fruits, without partiality, and without hypocrisy.
Jas 3:18  And the fruit of righteousness is sown in peace of them that make peace.

Love envies not
1Co 13:4  Charity suffereth long, and is kind; charity envieth not; charity vaunteth not itself, is not puffed up,

When we walk in God’s love we realize that we do not have the corner market on truth.  As a result we must be patient with one another focusing on faith, hope and love.  Recall that these three things constitute the armor of God, in specific His breastplate of righteousness (1 Thessalonians 5:8-9).  It is in this love that we can stand (Ephesians 6:11-18; Romans 5:1-2).

Knowledge puffs us up and leads to division.  Love does not puff us up, love edifies (1 Corinthians 4:4-7; 13:4; Colossians 2:18-19)

1Co 8:1  Now as touching things offered unto idols, we know that we all have knowledge. Knowledge puffeth up, but charity edifieth.
1Co 8:2  And if any man think that he knoweth any thing, he knoweth nothing yet as he ought to know.
1Co 8:3  But if any man love God, the same is known of him.

Eph 6:23  Peace be to the brethren, and love with faith, from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.
Eph 6:24  Grace be with all them that love our Lord Jesus Christ in sincerity. Amen.

Leaven & Authority

The word for leaven {שאר ‘se`ar’} comes from the root word סר ‘sar.’  The word means to turn something to another direction as a ruler does his people, and a teacher or parent his student or son.  It is connected to binding, as in a yoke put to the neck of oxen to drive then in the direction which you wish them to go.  Leaven in the Scripture is a picture of teaching and doctrine.  It is used to drive men in the direction to which the doctrine teaches.

The Kingdom of Heaven is to be kneaded into the hearts of men leading them to turn into the right direction and be yoked with Messiah.

Mat 13:33  He spoke another parable to them: The kingdom of Heaven is compared to leaven, which taking, a woman hid in three measures of meal until the whole was leavened.

Some religious leaders, by their doctrine, yoke men to themselves and attempt to lead them to their ways…usually away from the Kingdom.

Mat 16:6  And Jesus said to them, Watch and take heed from the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees.
Mat 16:7  And they reasoned among themselves, saying, Because we did not take loaves.
Mat 16:8  And knowing, Jesus said to them, Why do you reason among yourselves because you took no loaves, little-faiths?
Mat 16:9  Do you not perceive nor recall the five loaves of the five thousand, and how many hand baskets you took up?
Mat 16:10  Nor the seven loaves of the four thousand, and how many lunch baskets you took up?
Mat 16:11  How do you not perceive that it was not about loaves that I said to you to take heed from the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees?
Mat 16:12  Then they knew that He did not say to take heed from the leaven of bread, but from the doctrine of the Pharisees and Sadducees.

Luk 12:1  At which time the myriads of the crowd being gathered together, so as to trample on one another, He began to say to His disciples first, Take heed to yourselves of the leaven of the Pharisees, which is hypocrisy.

Mat 23:4  For they bind heavy and hard to bear burdens, and lay them on the shoulders of men, but they do not desire to move them with their finger.

Luk 11:52  Woe to you, lawyers! Because you took the key of knowledge; you yourselves did not enter, and you kept out the ones entering.

Gal 5:7  You were running well; who held you back that you do not obey the truth?
Gal 5:8  The persuasion is not from Him calling you.
Gal 5:9  A little leaven leavens all the lump.

Believers are to be without the leaven of the religious and worldly systems.

1Co 5:6  Your boast is not good. Do you not know that a little leaven leavens all the lump?
1Co 5:7  Then purge out the old leaven so that you may be a new lump, even as you are unleavened. For also Christ our Passover was sacrificed for us.
1Co 5:8  So let us keep the feast, not with old leaven, nor with leaven of malice and of evil, but with unleavened bread of sincerity and truth.

This is what the New Covenant is all about.  Being born again (new lump), with God’s Word written in your heart where He can work through you as you work out your own salvation with fear and trembling.

Jer 31:31  Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah:
Jer 31:32  Not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt; which my covenant they brake, although I was an husband unto them, saith the LORD:
Jer 31:33  But this shall be the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel; After those days, saith the LORD, I will put my law in their inward parts, and write it in their hearts; and will be their God, and they shall be my people.
Jer 31:34  And they shall teach no more every man his neighbour, and every man his brother, saying, Know the LORD: for they shall all know me, from the least of them unto the greatest of them, saith the LORD: for I will forgive their iniquity, and I will remember their sin no more.

Heb 10:12  But this man, after he had offered one sacrifice for sins for ever, sat down on the right hand of God;
Heb 10:13  From henceforth expecting till his enemies be made his footstool.
Heb 10:14  For by one offering he hath perfected for ever them that are sanctified.
Heb 10:15  Whereof the Holy Ghost also is a witness to us: for after that he had said before,
Heb 10:16  This is the covenant that I will make with them after those days, saith the Lord, I will put my laws into their hearts, and in their minds will I write them;
Heb 10:17  And their sins and iniquities will I remember no more.

Messiah Jesus is the Authority of His covenant people (1 Corinthians 11:3; 15:24-28; Ephesians 4:15; 5:23; Colossians 1:18-19).  He guides them through His Spirit (John 14:16, 24-26; 15:26; 16:13; 1 Peter 1:2; Ezekiel 11:19-20; 36:26-28; 1 John 2:20, 27)….this is the “leaven” doctrine of the Kingdom (Matthew 13:33).

The Hebrew word סר ‘sar,’ (the root of שאר ‘se`ar’} also means one who is in authority.  Israel (the people of God) are those who rule {סרה ‘sarah’} with God….They are born again, a new lump, “leavened” with the Holy Spirit/Word of God/Kingdom.

This is the ‘leaven’ that is ‘baked’ into the two wave loaves offered on Shavuot/Pentecost.

Lev 23:16  Even unto the morrow after the seventh sabbath shall ye number fifty days; and ye shall offer a new meat offering unto the LORD.
Lev 23:17  Ye shall bring out of your habitations two wave loaves of two tenth deals: they shall be of fine flour; they shall be baken with leaven {חמץ ‘chamets’}; they are the firstfruits unto the LORD.

 

Firstfruits



It is commonly taught that Easter is a celebration of the resurrection of the Messiah, however this shadow picture was already rehearsed for over a thousand years by the wave sheaf offering the day after the sabbath during the week of Passover/Unleavened Bread.

Lev 23:10  Speak to the sons of Israel, and you shall say to them, When you come in to the land which I am giving to you, and have reaped its harvest, and have brought in the sheaf, or the beginning of your harvest, to the priest,
Lev 23:11  then he shall wave the sheaf before Jehovah for your acceptance; on the morrow of the sabbath the priest shall wave it.
Lev 23:12  And you shall prepare a lamb in the day you wave the sheaf, one without blemish, a son of a year, for a burnt offering to Jehovah.
Lev 23:13  And its food offering shall be two tenths part of flour mixed with oil, a fire offering to Jehovah, a sweet fragrance; and its drink offering, a fourth of a hin of wine.
Lev 23:14  And you shall not eat bread, nor roasted grain, nor fresh ears, until this same day, until you have brought the offering of your God; it is a never ending statute throughout your generations in all your dwellings.

Wave Sheaf Offering

Ronald Dart of Christian Education Ministries noted that there was a Jewish/Christian observance on the Sunday after the Passover crucifixion:

“On the evening after the Sabbath was over, the very first sheaf of grain of the early harvest was cut from the ground. It was prepared that night by threshing the barley from the chaff and then parching it over a fire. The next morning, the priest lifted an omer of the grain to God as the presentation of the firstfruits of the harvest. Now, compare this to Christian theology of the resurrection.

But now is Christ risen from the dead, and become the firstfruits of them that slept. For since by man came death, by man came also the resurrection of the dead. For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive. But every man in his own order: Christ the firstfruits; afterward they that are Christ’s at his coming (1 Corinthians 15:20-23).

It is clear enough that, in referring to “Christ the firstfruits, Paul is referring directly to that first sheaf offered on the morning after the Sabbath by the priest. His wording leaves no room for doubt. James will refer to this as well: “Of his own will begat he us with the word of truth, that we should be a kind of firstfruits of his creatures” (James 1:18). What we see here is Christ as the first of the firstfruits in the resurrection, with the remainder of the firstfruits to follow at his coming.

So this particular Sunday was important to both Jews and Christians. To Jews, it was the day of the offering of the firstfruits, the first day of the seven weeks to the Feast of Firstfruits. To Christians, it was the morning of Jesus’ presentation to the Father and of his first appearances to his disciples after his resurrection from the dead. And it was the first day of the seven weeks to Pentecost.

For the first Christians, the symbolism of the Jewish observance was seen to point directly to Christ. The connection was clear and strong from the start. The early church had not adopted a calendar different from that of the Jewish majority in the first century, the calendar was crucial, because it defined the time of observance of the feasts. There is not a word in the New Testament to suggest any change from the Jewish observance…so the comparison between liturgy and events was, to them, even more apparent.

Now consider this carefully. This Sunday was celebrated early on as the day of Christ’s first appearances after his resurrection. It was an anniversary that appeared on the Jewish calendar on the first Sunday after Passover every year. As explained in the last chapter, every place in the New Testament where you see the expression “The first day of the week” it is referring, not to a Sunday, but to a singular day of the year. The first day of the seven Sabbaths or weeks leading up to Pentecost. It is an annual, not a weekly observance. It was, for want of a better term, “wave sheaf Sunday” (Ronald Dart From Passover to Easter. April 12, 2006).

Deu 16:9  You shall number to yourself seven weeks. When the sickle begins to reap in the standing grain, you shall begin to number seven weeks.
Deu 16:10  And you shall keep the Feast of Weeks to Jehovah your God according to the measure of the freewill offering of your hand, which you shall give according as Jehovah your God blesses you.
1Co 15:20  But now Christ has been raised from the dead; He became the firstfruit of those having fallen asleep.
1Co 15:21  For since death is through man, also through a Man is a resurrection of the dead;
1Co 15:22  for as in Adam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive.
1Co 15:23  But each in his own order: Christ, the firstfruit; afterward those of Christ at His coming.
Lev 23:10  Speak to the sons of Israel, and you shall say to them, When you come in to the land which I am giving to you, and have reaped its harvest, and have brought in the sheaf, or the beginning of your harvest, to the priest,
Lev 23:11  then he shall wave the sheaf before Jehovah for your acceptance; on the morrow of the sabbath the priest shall wave it.
Lev 23:12  And you shall prepare a lamb in the day you wave the sheaf, one without blemish, a son of a year, for a burnt offering to Jehovah.
Lev 23:13  And its food offering shall be two tenths part of flour mixed with oil, a fire offering to Jehovah, a sweet fragrance; and its drink offering, a fourth of a hin of wine.
Lev 23:14  And you shall not eat bread, nor roasted grain, nor fresh ears, until this same day, until you have brought the offering of your God; it is a never ending statute throughout your generations in all your dwellings.
Lev 23:15  And you shall number to you from the next day after the sabbath, from the day you bring in the sheaf of the wave offering; they shall be seven complete sabbaths;
Lev 23:16  the next day after the seventh sabbath, you shall number fifty days; and you shall bring near a new food offering to Jehovah;
Lev 23:17  you shall bring in bread out of your dwellings for a wave offering, two loaves; they shall be of two tenth ephah of flour; they shall be baked with leaven; firstfruits to Jehovah.
Lev 23:18  And besides the bread, you shall offer seven lambs, without blemish, sons of a year, and one bull, a son of the herd, and two rams; they are a burnt offering to Jehovah, with their food offering and their drink offerings, a fire offering of soothing fragrance to Jehovah.
Lev 23:19  And you shall offer one he-goat for a sin offering, and two lambs, sons of a year, for a sacrifice of peace offerings.
Lev 23:20  And the priest shall wave them, besides the bread of the firstfruits, a wave offering before Jehovah, besides the two lambs; they are holy to Jehovah for the priest.
Lev 23:21  And you shall make a proclamation on this same day; it is a holy gathering to you. You shall do no work of service. It is a never ending statute in all your dwellings throughout your generations.

According to the Talmud, Menachot 10:4, after the wave sheaf was reaped the priests would parch it with fire and beat it with reeds and stems of the plants so that the grains would not be crushed.  Here is a picture of the sufferings of Messiah (Isaiah 53) who was beaten and ‘parched with fire’ yet without a bone being broken (John 19:36).

Firstfruits – Firstborn

In Hebrew, the firstfruits and the first born are the same, from the word בכר ‘bakar’ which means the choicest one.

Exo 13:12  you shall set apart to Jehovah every one opening the womb, and every firstling, the offspring of animals which are yours; the males are Jehovah‘s.
Exo 13:13  And every firstling of an ass you shall redeem with a flock animal. And if you do not redeem, you shall break its neck. And every first-born of men among your sons you shall redeem.
Exo 13:14  And it shall be when your son asks you in the future, saying, What is this? You shall say to him, Jehovah brought us out from Egypt by the might of His hand, from the house of slaves.
Exo 13:15  And it happened when Pharaoh hardened himself against sending us away, Jehovah killed every first-born one in the land of Egypt, from the first-born of men even to the first-born of animals. On account of this I sacrifice to Jehovah every one of the males opening the womb, and I redeem every first-born of my sons.
Exo 13:16  And it shall be for a sign on your hand, and frontlets between your eyes. For Jehovah brought us out from Egypt by the might of His hand.

The 1st born had to have No blemishes

Deu 15:19  The firstling males that are born of your herd and of your flock, you shall sanctify to Jehovah your God. You shall do no work with the firstling of your ox, nor shear the firstling of your flock.
Deu 15:20  You shall eat it before Jehovah your God year by year in the place which Jehovah shall choose, you and your household.
Deu 15:21  And if there is any blemish in it, lameness, or blindness, or any evil blemish whatever, you shall not sacrifice it to Jehovah your God.

Jesus had no blemishes

Col 1:18  And He is the Head of the body, the assembly, who is the Beginning, the First-born out of the dead, that He be preeminent in all things;
1Pe 1:18  knowing that not with corruptible things, silver or gold, were you redeemed from your worthless way of life handed down from your fathers,
1Pe 1:19  but with precious blood of Christ, as a lamb without blemish and without spot,

We are without blemish in Him

Jud 1:24  Now to Him being able to keep you without stumbling, and to set you before His glory without blemish, with unspeakable joy;
Rom 8:29  because whom He foreknew, He also predestinated to be conformed to the image of His Son, for Him to be the First-born among many brothers.

1st born connected w/ passing over (Hebrews – עברים ‘Ivrim’)

Exo 13:12  you shall set apart (עבר ‘avar’ pass over) to Jehovah every one opening the womb, and every firstling, the offspring of animals which are yours; the males are Jehovah‘s.

Israel is the “beginning” ראשׁית ‘reshiyt’
 
Jer 2:3  Israel was holy to Jehovah, the first fruits {ראשׁית ‘reshiyt’}  of His increase. All that devour him become guilty; evil shall come on them, declares Jehovah.
Isa 63:19  We are of old ( מעולם ‘me’olam’); You never ruled over them. Your name was never called on them.
Rev 17:8  The beast which you saw was, and is not, and is about to come up out of the abyss, and goes to perdition. And those dwelling on the earth will marvel, the ones whose names have not been written on the Book of Life from the foundation of the world, seeing the beast, that it was a thing, and is not, yet now is.
Mat 25:34  Then the King will say to those on His right, Come, the blessed of My Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world.
Eph 1:4  even as He elected us in Him before the foundation of the world, for us to be holy and without blemish before Him in love,
Tit 1:1  Paul, a slave of God and an apostle of Jesus Christ according to the faith of the elect of God and full knowledge of the truth according to godliness,
Tit 1:2  on hope of eternal life which the God who does not lie promised before the eternal times,
Tit 1:3  but revealed in its own times in a proclamation of His Word, with which I was entrusted by the command of our Savior God;
1Pe 1:17  And if you call on the Father, the One judging according to the work of each one without respect of faces pass the time of your sojourning in fear,
1Pe 1:18  knowing that not with corruptible things, silver or gold, were you redeemed from your worthless way of life handed down from your fathers,
1Pe 1:19  but with precious blood of Christ, as a lamb without blemish and without spot,
1Pe 1:20  indeed having been foreknown before the foundation of the world, but revealed in the last times because of you,
1Pe 1:21  the ones believing in God through Him, He raising Him from the dead, and giving glory to Him so that your faith and hope may be in God.

The resurrection

1Co 15:20  But now Christ has been raised from the dead; He became the firstfruit of those having fallen asleep.
1Co 15:21  For since death is through man, also through a Man is a resurrection of the dead;
1Co 15:22  for as in Adam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive.
1Co 15:23  But each in his own order: Christ, the firstfruit; afterward those of Christ at His coming.
1Co 15:24  Then is the end, when He delivers the kingdom to God, even the Father, when He makes to cease all rule and all authority and power.
Rom 8:28  But we know that to the ones loving God all things work together for good, to those being called according to purpose;
Rom 8:29  because whom He foreknew, He also predestinated to be conformed to the image of His Son, for Him to be the First-born among many brothers.
Rom 8:30  But whom He predestinated, these He also called; and whom He called, these He also justified; and whom He justified, these He also glorified.
Rom 11:16  Now if the firstfruit is holy, so also the lump. And if the root is holy, so also the branches.

Resurrected believers

Heb 12:22  But you have drawn near Mount Zion (Isaiah 2, Psalm 87) even the city of the living God, to a heavenly Jerusalem, and to myriads of angels,
Heb 12:23  and to a gathering, an assembly of the first-born ones having been enrolled in Heaven; and to God the Judge of all, and to spirits of just ones who have been perfected;
Jas 1:18  Having purposed, He brought us forth by the Word of truth, for us to be a certain firstfruit of His creatures.
Jer 2:3  Israel was holy to Jehovah, the firstfruits of His increase. All that devour him become guilty; evil shall come on them, declares Jehovah.

144,000…

Rev 14:3  And they sing as a new song before the throne, and before the four living creatures and the elders. And no one was able to learn the song except the hundred and forty four thousands, those having been redeemed from the earth.
Rev 14:4  These are the ones who were not defiled with women, for they are virgins. These are the ones following the Lamb wherever He may go. These were redeemed from among men as a firstfruit to God and to the Lamb.

The 1st resurrection

Rev 20:4  And I saw thrones, and they sat on them. And judgment was given to them, and the souls of the ones having been beheaded because of the witness of Jesus, and because of the Word of God, and who had not worshiped the beast nor its image, and had not received the mark on their forehead and on their hand. And they lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years.
Rev 20:5  But the rest of the dead did not live again until the thousand years were ended. This is the first resurrection.
Rev 20:6  Blessed and holy is the one having part in the first resurrection. The second death has no authority over these, but they will be priests of God and of Christ, and will reign with Him a thousand years.

The seed that God has blessed

Isa 65:22  They shall not build, and another live in them; they shall not plant, and another eat. For like the days of the tree are the days of My people; and My elect shall grow old to the work of their hands.
Isa 65:23  They shall not labor in vain, nor bring forth for terror. For they are the seed of the beloved ones of Jehovah, and their offspring with them.
Rom 11:16  Now if the firstfruit is holy, so also the lump. And if the root is holy, so also the branches.
Isa 6:13  But yet a tenth shall be in it, and it shall return and be consumed like the terebinth and like the oak that in being felled yet has its stump (the holy seed is its stump).

The Priesthood originally was the 1stborn

Exo 4:22  And thou shalt say unto Pharaoh, Thus saith the LORD, Israel is my son, even my firstborn:
Jer 2:3  Israel was holiness unto the LORD, and the firstfruits of his increase: all that devour him shall offend; evil shall come upon them, saith the LORD.
Exo 13:2  Sanctify unto me all the firstborn, whatsoever openeth the womb among the children of Israel, both of man and of beast: it is mine.
Exo 24:4  And Moses wrote all the words of the LORD, and rose up early in the morning, and builded an altar under the hill, and twelve pillars, according to the twelve tribes of Israel.
Exo 24:5  And he sent young men of the children of Israel, which offered burnt offerings, and sacrificed peace offerings of oxen unto the LORD.
Then transferred to the Levites
Num 3:12  And I, behold, I have taken the Levites from among the children of Israel instead of all the firstborn that openeth the matrix among the children of Israel: therefore the Levites shall be mine;
Num 3:13  Because all the firstborn are mine; for on the day that I smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt I hallowed unto me all the firstborn in Israel, both man and beast: mine shall they be: I am the LORD.
Num 3:41  And thou shalt take the Levites for me (I am the LORD) instead of all the firstborn among the children of Israel; and the cattle of the Levites instead of all the firstlings among the cattle of the children of Israel.
Num 18:6  And I, behold, I have taken your brethren the Levites from among the children of Israel: to you they are given as a gift for the LORD, to do the service of the tabernacle of the congregation.
 
Transferred back to the 1st born/Melchizedek priesthood

Isa 61:6  But you shall be called, Priests of Jehovah; it will be said of you, Ministers of our God. You shall eat the wealth of the nations, and you shall revel in their glory.
Isa 61:9  And their seed shall be known among the nations, and their offspring among the peoples; all who see them shall acknowledge them, that they are the seed that Jehovah has blessed.
Isa 61:10  Rejoicing I will rejoice in Jehovah. My soul shall be joyful in my God. For He clothed me with garments of salvation; He put on me the robe of righteousness, even as a bridegroom dons as a priest his head-dress, and as a bride wears her ornaments.
Isa 61:9  And their seed shall be known among the nations, and their offspring among the peoples; all who see them shall acknowledge them, that they are the seed that Jehovah has blessed.
Isa 61:10  Rejoicing I will rejoice in Jehovah. My soul shall be joyful in my God. For He clothed me with garments of salvation; He put on me the robe of righteousness, even as a bridegroom dons as a priest his head-dress, and as a bride wears her ornaments.

Priests covered in the garments of Yeshua/Salvation

Psa 132:9  Let Your priests be clothed with righteousness, and let Your saints shout for joy.
Psa 132:16  And I will clothe her priests with salvation; and her saints shall surely shout.
Rev 6:10  And they cried with a great voice, saying, Until when, holy and true Master, do You not judge and take vengeance for our blood, from those dwelling on the earth?
Rev 6:11  And there was given to each one a white robe. And it was said to them that they should rest yet a little time, until might be fulfilled also the number of their fellow-slaves and their brothers, those being about to be killed, even as they.
Rev 7:9  After these things I saw, and behold, a great crowd which no one was able to number them, out of every nation, even tribes and peoples and tongues, standing in front of the throne, and before the Lamb, having been clothed with white robes, and in their hands palm branches.
Rev 7:13  And one of the elders answered, saying to me, These, the ones having been clothed in the white robes, who are they, and from where did they come?
Rev 7:14  And I said to him, Sir, you know. And he said to me, These are those coming out of the great tribulation; and they washed their robes and whitened them in the blood of the Lamb.
Rev 7:15  Because of this they are before the throne of God, and serve Him day and night in His sanctuary. And He sitting on the throne will spread His tabernacle over them.
Rev 7:16  And they will not hunger still, nor will they thirst still, nor at all shall fall on them the sun, nor any kind of heat.
Rev 7:17  Because the Lamb in the midst of the throne will shepherd them, and will lead them on living springs of waters; and God will wipe off every tear from their eyes.
Rev 19:6  And I heard as a sound of a numerous crowd, and as a sound of many waters, and as a sound of strong thunders, saying, Hallelujah! Because the Lord God Almighty reigned.
Rev 19:7  Let us rejoice and let us exult, and we will give glory to Him, because the marriage of the Lamb came, and His wife prepared herself.
Rev 19:8  And it was given to her that she be clothed in fine linen, pure and bright; for the fine linen is the righteousness of the saints.
Rev 19:9  And he says to me, Write: Blessed are the ones having been called to the supper of the marriage of the Lamb. And he says to me, These Words of God are true.
Rev 1:5  even from Jesus Christ the Faithful Witness, the First-born out of the dead, and the Ruler of the kings of the earth. To Him loving us and washing us from our sins by His blood,
Rev 1:6  and made us kings and priests to God, even His Father. To Him is the glory and the might forever and ever. Amen.
Rev 5:9  And they sing a new song, saying, Worthy are You to receive the scroll, and to open its seals, because You were slain, and by Your blood purchased us to God out of every tribe and tongue and people and nation,
Rev 5:10  and made us kings and priests to our God; and we shall reign over the earth.
Rev 20:6  Blessed and holy is he that hath part in the first resurrection: on such the second death hath no power, but they shall be priests of God and of Christ, and shall reign with him a thousand years.

Israel to be kings and priests

Exo 19:5  Now therefore, if ye will obey my voice indeed, and keep my covenant, then ye shall be a peculiar treasure unto me above all people: for all the earth is mine:
1Pe 2:5  Ye also, as lively stones, are built up a spiritual house, an holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable to God by Jesus Christ.

1st born=1st fruit

Deu 21:17  But he shall acknowledge the first-born, the son of the hated one, by giving him a double portion of all that he has; for he is the firstfruit of his strength, the right of the first-born is his.
Exo 4:22  And thou shalt say unto Pharaoh, Thus saith the LORD, Israel is my son, even my firstborn:
Jer 2:3  Israel was holiness unto the LORD, and the firstfruits of his increase: all that devour him shall offend; evil shall come upon them, saith the LORD.
Exo 13:2  Sanctify unto me all the firstborn, whatsoever openeth the womb among the children of Israel, both of man and of beast: it is mine.
Exo 24:4  And Moses wrote all the words of the LORD, and rose up early in the morning, and builded an altar under the hill, and twelve pillars, according to the twelve tribes of Israel.
Exo 24:5  And he sent young men of the children of Israel, which offered burnt offerings, and sacrificed peace offerings of oxen unto the LORD.
Num 3:12  And I, behold, I have taken the Levites from among the children of Israel instead of all the firstborn that openeth the matrix among the children of Israel: therefore the Levites shall be mine;
Jas 1:18  Having purposed, He brought us forth by the Word of truth, for us to be a certain firstfruit of His creatures.
Jer 2:3  Israel was holy to Jehovah, the firstfruits (ראשׁית) of His increase. All that devour him become guilty; evil shall come on them, declares Jehovah.
Amo 6:1  Woe to those at ease in Zion, and those trusting in the mountain of Samaria, those noted as the leader (ראשׁית‘reshiyt’) of the nations! And the house of Israel came to them.
Rev 14:3  And they sing as a new song before the throne, and before the four living creatures and the elders. And no one was able to learn the song except the hundred and forty four thousands, those having been redeemed from the earth.
Rev 14:4  These are the ones who were not defiled with women, for they are virgins. These are the ones following the Lamb wherever He may go. These were redeemed from among men as a firstfruit to God and to the Lamb.

In Hebrew the word for redemption is פדת ‘padut’ which means to bring back to an original state.


פד ‘pad’ means to bring back to an original state.  When the letter ת ‘tav’ is added it means that redemption comes through the cross/covenant of Messiah Jesus.

This is what redemption is, to bring back man to the state of Adam before he fell.  This can only be done through Messiah Jesus who is the tree of life.  In the end, the man of sin is going to offer redemption through the tree of knowledge…’ye shall not surely die’, yet this is going to lead to eternal damnation.  The sons of God are those who are adopted and redeemed through Messiah Jesus (Romans 8:11-39). The adversary is going to offer mankind to become one with the fallen sons of God who come down from heaven offering to mix with mankind just as they did in the days of Noah (Matthew 24:37).

Redemption of the 1st born…pointing back to Passover and especially referring to Messiah Jesus.  At the time of the end when the mark of the beast is instituted, at the same time the mark of God will be in the foreheads of the 144,000 who are the firstfruits/firstborn.

Exo 13:15  And it happened when Pharaoh hardened himself against sending us away, Jehovah killed every first-born one in the land of Egypt, from the first-born of men even to the first-born of animals. On account of this I sacrifice to Jehovah every one of the males opening the womb, and I redeem every first-born of my sons.
Exo 13:16  And it shall be for a sign on your hand, and frontlets between your eyes. For Jehovah brought us out from Egypt by the might of His hand.

Rev 14:1  And I saw, and behold, the Lamb standing on Mount Zion! And with Him were a hundred and forty four thousands, with the name of His Father having been written on their foreheads.
Rev 22:4  And they will see His face; and His name will be on their foreheads.

 
His Name is the Word

Rev 19:13  and having been clothed in a garment which had been dipped in blood. And His name is called The Word of God. 

We are marked by the Name/Torah/Jesus

Rev 7:3  Do not harm the earth, nor the sea, nor the trees, until we seal the slaves of our God on their foreheads.
Rev 7:4  And I heard the number of those having been sealed: one hundred forty four thousands, having been sealed out of every tribe of the sons of Israel:
Rev 14:1  And I saw, and behold, the Lamb standing on Mount Zion! And with Him were a hundred and forty four thousands, with the name of His Father having been written on their foreheads.
Rev 14:2  And I heard a sound out of Heaven, as a sound of many waters, and as a sound of great thunder. Also I heard a sound of harpers harping on their harps.
Rev 14:3  And they sing as a new song before the throne, and before the four living creatures and the elders. And no one was able to learn the song except the hundred and forty four thousands, those having been redeemed from the earth.
Rev 14:4  These are the ones who were not defiled with women, for they are virgins. These are the ones following the Lamb wherever He may go. These were redeemed from among men as a firstfruit to God and to the Lamb.
Rev 14:5  And no guile was found in their mouth, for they are without blemish before the throne of God.

Exodus 8:23 Distinction=redemption=sign=ephod=mark of God?

Exo 8:23  And I will put redemption (KJV distinction) between My people and your people. This miracle shall be for tomorrow.
 

Brought back to an original state.  A sinless state.  Like the Last Adam (1 Corinthians 15:45).

1Jn 3:1  See what manner of love the Father has given us, that we may be called children of God. For this reason the world does not know us, because it did not know Him.
1Jn 3:2  Beloved, now we are the children of God, and it was not yet revealed what we shall be. But we know that if He is revealed, we shall be like Him, because we shall see Him as He is.

We shall be in His image.  The seed of the serpent will be in his image.  This is what the mark of the beast is.  The Sons of God (Romans 8) will be clothed in the garments of righteousness and salvation (ישועה ‘yeshuah’ – source of the name Jesus).  The seed of the serpent will be clothed in the garments of the serpent.

The 144,00 are the firstborn, the priests…redeemed from the earth.

The “distinction” is seen in the end

Mal 3:16  Then those fearing Jehovah spoke together, each man to his neighbor. And Jehovah gave attention and heard. And a Book of Remembrance was written before Him for those who feared Jehovah, and for those esteeming His name.
Mal 3:17  And they shall be Mine, says Jehovah of Hosts, for the day that I will make up My treasure. And I will pity them as a man has pity on his son who serves him.
Mal 3:18  Then you shall again see the difference between the righteous and the wicked, between him who serves God and him who does not serve Him.

The Crucifixion

Joh 12:32  And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, I will draw all to Myself.

The word crucifixion comes from the Hebrew ספח ‘saphach’ which means to gather and bloodshed.

Messiah gathers His people through the cross.

Joh 10:11  I am the Good Shepherd! The Good Shepherd lays down His life on behalf of the sheep.
Joh 10:14  I am the Good Shepherd, and I know those that are Mine, and I am known by the ones that are Mine.
Joh 10:15  Even as the Father knows Me, I also know the Father; and I lay down My life for the sheep.
Joh 10:16  And I have other sheep which are not of this fold. I must also lead those, and they will hear My voice; and there will be one flock, one Shepherd.
Joh 10:17  For this reason My Father loves Me, because I lay down My life, that I may take it again.
Eph 2:11  Because of this, remember that you, the nations, were then in the flesh (those having been called Uncircumcision by those having been called Circumcision in the flesh made by hands)
Eph 2:12  that at that time you were without Christ, alienated from the commonwealth of Israel and strangers of the covenants of promise, having no hope and without God in the world.
Eph 2:13  But now, in Christ Jesus you who then were afar off, came to be near by the blood of Christ.
Eph 2:14  For He is our peace, He making us both one, and breaking down the middle wall of partition,
Eph 2:15  in His flesh causing to cease the enmity, the Law of the commandments in decrees, that He might in Himself create the two into one new man, making peace,
Eph 2:16  and might reconcile both in one body to God through the cross, slaying the enmity in Himself.
Eph 2:17  And coming, He proclaimed “peace to you, the ones afar off, and to the ones near.” Isa. 57:19
Eph 2:18  For through Him we both have access by one Spirit to the Father.
Eph 2:19  So, then, you are no longer strangers and tenants, but you are fellow citizens of the saints and of the family of God,
Eph 2:20  being built up on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ Himself being the cornerstone,
Eph 2:21  in whom all the building being fitted together grows into a holy temple in the Lord,
Eph 2:22  in whom you also are being built together into a dwelling place of God in the Spirit.

Isaiah prophesies of this exact occurrence which comes forth from the crucifixion of Messiah.  Amazingly, the word for ‘cleave’ is Isaiah 14 where this is prophesied of is ספח ‘saphach’ which is the origin of the word crucifixion.

Isa 14:1  For the LORD will have mercy on Jacob, and will yet choose Israel, and set them in their own land: and the strangers shall be joined with them, and they shall cleave to the house of Jacob.

The end of the exile is likened to wounds being bound up.

Psa 147:2  Jehovah builds up Jerusalem; He gathers the outcasts of Israel.
Psa 147:3  He heals the broken-hearted and binds up their sorrows.

The word for sorrow here is עצבת ‘etsebet’ which is what is used in reference to the punishment of Adam and Eve in Genesis 3.  The word for bind is חבש ‘chavash’ which comes from the root חב ‘chab’ which means to bind or join together.  It is also the root of the word ‘stripes’ which the Messiah received so that mankind may be healed.

Isa 53:5  But he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon him; and with his stripes {חברה ‘chaburah’} we are healed.

1Pe 2:24  who “Himself carried up in His body our sins” onto the tree; that dying to sins, we might live to righteousness, of whom “by His wound you were healed.”
1Pe 2:25  For you were “as sheep going astray,” but now you turned back to the Shepherd and Overseer of your souls. Isa. 53:4-6

The Family

It is amazing to note that the Hebrew word for family משפחה ‘mishpochah’ comes from the same root as ספח ‘saphach’ mentioned above as the origin of the word crucifixion.  The Greek word for family is πατρια ‘patria’ which comes from the word πατηρ ‘patēr’ which means father.  The Hebrew word for father is אב ‘av’ which is spelled ‘aleph’ ‘bet’…

Father

אב ‘av’ has the meaning of a pole.  In English, the word ‘pole’ comes from the Old English pal which traces back to the Latin ‘palus,’ which literally means a stake.  The English word ‘pale’ derives from this word.  ‘Pale’ means to fix or fasten and is related to the English word ‘pact.’  A pact is an agreement, treaty, compact which comes from the Latin word pactum which means a contract/covenant.  A covenant through a pole/stake…  Here we see אב ‘av’, the first word of the Hebrew alphabet pointing to the most important event in human history.  The crucifixion of Messiah Jesus, and the New Covenant (Isaiah 42:6; Matthew 26:28)  in His blood which restores mankind back to the Father.

The concrete meaning of the word אב ‘av’ is the pole/pillar of the house/tent.  This traces back to another Hebrew word for family בת ‘bet.’

Literally, the word בת ‘bet’ means the ‘mark of the house.’  This was seen in ancient times in the flag or banner placed in front of the tent with the name or symbol of the family.

Isa 11:10  And it shall be in that day, the Root of Jesse stands as a banner of peoples; nations shall seek to Him; and His resting place shall be glory.

Psa 20:5  We will rejoice (רנן ‘ranan’ shout for joy, sing, triumph) in thy salvation(ישׁוּעה ‘yeshu‛ah’), and in the name of our God we will set up our banner (דּגל ‘dagal’  raise a flag, conspicuously)

Ps 60:4: “Thou hast given a banner to them that fear thee, that it may be displayed (נוּס ‘nus’ lift up a standard) because of the truth. Selah.”

Joh 3:14  And even as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, so must the Son of Man be lifted up,
Joh 3:15  that everyone believing into Him should not perish, but have everlasting life.

The word father is a great example of all languages tracing back to Edenic Hebrew.  Father in Hebrew is אב ‘av’ aleph bet.

א aleph ב bet are the first two letters of the ‘aleph-bet’ from whence comes the English alpha-bet.

All of creation comes forth from the Word according to Psalm 33:6. Words are made up of letters (the Aleph-Bet) which points to Messiah who is the Alpha & Omega/Aleph-Tav which is a term meaning totality, as in the complete Alpha-Beta of the Greek or Aleph-Bet of the Hebrew.

Interestingly, the word ‘Bible’ in English comes from the Hebrew word אבוב ‘avoov’ which means a pipe and is also the source of the word papyrus which ancient Bibles were written upon. The word for booby and baba comes from אבוב ‘avoov/aboob’ as well. Again this traces back to אב ‘av’ who is the source of the milk of the Word (1 Peter 2:2). Peter was quoting from Psalm 34:8 which speaks of ‘tasting’ and seeing that God is good and blessed are those who ‘trust’ in Him. The word ‘trust’ comes from חסה ‘chasah’ which means a firm support, again tracing back to the meaning of אב ‘av’ father which literally means the strong one/support of the house.

The father is the strength of the house.  The teacher, the guide of the family.  The letter ב ‘bet’ represents the house/family consisting of male and female as the ancient nomadic tent was made of two parts, one for the male and the other for the female.  Man was made in the image of God, male and female (Genesis 1:27).  אב  ‘AB’ is the word for the source.  This passes into Latin as ‘ab’ and Greek as απο ‘apo’ which is portrayed in the Hebrew as מ ‘mem.’  The letter מ ‘mem’ is a pictograph for water and the womb.  The waters in the beginning and the womb of the mother.  Again the Father’s character consists of both ‘male’ and ‘female.’  This is further seen in that father means one who provides food, which is seen in the female breasts.  This word in Hebrew is דוד ‘dod’ which is the source of the English word dad.

Fruit on a pole is another translation of אב ‘av.’  This again points to the source of the next generation.  The word fruit comes from the Old English meaning a brook which links again to water.  The Old English word for fruit also means joy, eat, and cohabit, again tracing back to אב ‘av.’  Joy links to love who is God (1 John 4:16).  This is seen in the tent in the Hebrew word חשק ‘chashaq.’  חשק ‘chashaq’ has the meaning of being knit together in love (Deuteronomy 7:7; Psalm 91:14) and is used in Exodus 38:17, 28 for the joining together of the Tabernacle.

The English word father comes from πατηρ ‘pater’ in Greek which traces back to  פטר  ‘pater’  in Hebrew which means the breaking forth of something such as a child being born, or the seed in fruit to continue the next generation.  פר ‘par’ means fruit, and the breaking open of the heads of grain to reveal the seed inside.

נב ‘nav’ is another word for fruit and carries this same meaning, the fruit inside.  It is no surprise that the first and last letters of the Bible (Genesis-Revelation) consist of these two letters.  The reverse is בן ‘ben’ which means son.  The son is the seed of the father that continues the house.

The father is the protector of the family and is seen in איב ‘oyev’ the point of a tent pole used to protect the family against enemies.  This can also be seen in the spear which is used to protect, defend or to kill and eat.

Dad comes from דוד ‘dod’ which means the breasts, the source of food, life – milk.  Interestingly, milk contains protein which comes forth from 22 amino acids linking to the 22 letters of the Hebrew aleph-bet…taste and see that He is good (Psalm 34:8).

 

The Lamb Slain from the Foundation of the World

Gen 1:1  In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth


The first word of the Scriptures is Beresheit (In the Beginning).  It has the Gematria of 913.  God the Father in Greek has an exact numerical equivalent.  In Hebrew the first word of the language is father אב ‘av.’


Interestingly, 913 also is associated with His House.  The first letter of the Scriptures is an enlarged bet.  The ב ‘bet’ in Hebrew means the house.


Messiah Jesus connects the house to His flesh.

Joh 2:19  Jesus said to them, Destroy this sanctuary, and in three days I will raise it up.
Joh 2:20  Then the Jews said, This sanctuary was forty six years being built, and do You raise it up in three days?
Joh 2:21  But He spoke about the sanctuary of His body.

The Enlarged Bet


This first letter of the Scriptures is enlarged.  This is one of the peculiar letters in the Scriptures which is not the normal size.  Messiah Jesus referred to these as ‘jots and tittles’ in Matthew 5:18.  Again, the letter ב ‘bet’ means a house.


This is the primary purpose of Creation.  The Almighty desired to have a physical dwelling.  To build a house, a man takes a bride who establishes the home where children are born and raised.  This is the desire of our Creator.  To have a physical dwelling with His bride where many sons will be brought to glory (Hebrews 2:10).

Taking the first two letters gives the word בר ‘bar’, which means “my son”.


A House for His Son….notice the connection between the tent/house and a son.

בר ‘bar’ – Son

Psa 2:12  Kiss the Son (בר ‘bar’), lest He be angry, and you perish from the way, when His wrath is kindled but a little. Oh the blessings of all those who flee to Him for refuge!

“Rabbi Johanan said, ‘The world was created for the sake of the Messiah, what is this Messiah’s name?’ The school of Rabbi Shila said, ‘his name is Shiloh, for it is written, until Shiloh comes. (Genesis 49:10)’” [Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin 98b]

This word בן ‘ben’ teaches of the Messiah in another fashion as well.  The word for pattern in Hebrew is תבנית  ‘tabniyt’ which comes from the root בן ‘ben.’

The patterns, types, and shadows in the Scriptures point to the SON.

Heb 9:24  For Christ did not enter into the Holy of Holies made by hands, types of the true things, but into Heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God on our behalf,
Heb 10:1  For the Law had a shadow of the coming good things, not the image itself of those things. Appearing year by year with the same sacrifices, which they offer continually, they never are able to perfect the ones drawing near.
Heb 8:5  who serve the pattern of and shadow of heavenly things, even as Moses was divinely warned, being about to make the tabernacle: For He says, “See that you make all things according to the pattern being shown to you in the mount.”
Exodus 25:40

Rom 5:14  but death reigned from Adam until Moses, even on those who had not sinned in the likeness of Adam’s transgression, who is a type of the coming One.
1Co 10:6  But these things became examples for us, so that we may not be lusters after evil, even as those indeed lusted.

Torah is a shadow picture of Messiah

H8452

תּורה tôrâh
Total KJV Occurrences: 1
manner, 1

2Sa 7:19  And this was yet a small thing in thy sight, O Lord GOD; but thou hast spoken also of thy servant’s house for a great while to come. And is this the manner (תורה ‘torah’) of man, O Lord GOD?

The Torah is a shadow of the Messiah.  It is the form of His ‘image’.  He is the reality of that Image.

Col 2:16  Then do not let anyone judge you in eating, or in drinking, or in part of a feast, or of a new moon, or of sabbaths,
Col 2:17  which are a shadow of coming things, but the body is of Christ.

The Tabernacle/the Tent/House is a shadow of Messiah.  The earthly Tabernacle was to be in the pattern of the Heavenly.

Exo 25:9  According to all that I shew thee, after the pattern of the tabernacle, and the pattern of all the instruments thereof, even so shall ye make it.
Exo 25:40  And see that they are made by their patterns which you were caused to see in the mountain.

Heb 8:5  who serve the pattern of and shadow of heavenly things, even as Moses was divinely warned, being about to make the tabernacle: For He says, “See that you make all things according to the pattern being shown to you in the mount.”
the word for pattern is:

H8403
תּבנית
tabnîyth
BDB Definition:
1) pattern, plan, form, construction, figure

The root of תּבנית ‘tabniyth’ is בן ‘ben’ (tent panel/son).

The ancient Jewish sages spoke of this pattern as the Torah

Beresheit Rabba:

Back to the letter, bet…


This word comes from the root:

Again this word connects to Messiah.

This idea of a family mark is seen in the banners that were set up for each house of the children of Israel in the wilderness (Numbers 2).  Who is our banner?  It is Messiah (Psalm 20:5; 60:4; Isaiah 11:10-12; 62:10-11).

The Lamb slain from the foundation of the world found in the pictographic meaning of בראשית ‘bereshit’.

Rev 13:8 And all those dwelling in the earth will worship it, those of whom the names had not been written in the Book of Life of the Lamb having been slain from the foundation of the world.

Num 21:8  And Jehovah spoke to Moses, Make yourself a fiery serpent, and set it on a pole; and it shall be that when anyone is bitten, when he sees it, he shall live.

The word for pole here is נס ‘nes’ which is also translated as flag/banner.

 

Bitter Herbs

Exo 12:8  And they shall eat the flesh in that night, roast with fire, and unleavened bread; and with bitter herbs {על־מררים ‘al merorim’} they shall eat it.

The word מררים ‘merorim’ means bitterness and points to the crucifixion of Messiah.

Zec 12:10  And I will pour on the house of David, and on those living in Jerusalem, the Spirit of grace and of prayers. And they shall look on Me whom they have pierced; and they shall mourn for Him, as one mourns for an only son, and they shall be bitter {מרר ‘marar’} over Him, like the bitterness {מרר ‘marar’} over the first-born.
Joh 19:37  And again, a different Scripture says, “They shall look at Him whom they have pierced.” Zech. 12:10

It is interesting to note that the Aramaic word for lamb, אימר ‘iymar’ comes from the root מרר ‘marar.’  Another interesting connection between מרר ‘marar’ and the crucifixion is the Hebrew word תמורה ‘temorah’ which means to exchange, or restitution.  Messiah Jesus took our sins upon Himself on the cross, exchanging our wickedness for His righteousness, restoring mankind back to the Father…

The number 2869 links the body of Messiah, the Lamb of God, to Zechariah 12:10.




During Spring, which pictures the resurrection, bitter herbs such as endives, wild onions and dandelions spring forth from the earth.


Leeks, onions & garlic all display the picture of Messiah’s death and resurrection.  These plants have been used for centuries to fight off disease.  There are a number of stories of onions and garlic being used during the black plague by being placed in a room to ‘absorb’ germs. This connects to the sacrifice of the Messiah on the cross when He ‘absorbed’ the sins of mankind.

The Hebrew word for onion is בצל ‘betsal.’  בצל ‘betsal’ comes from the root זל which literally means ‘cut’ the ‘shepherd.’ (John 19:34-37).  בצל ‘betsal’ can also mean ‘in His shadow’ or ‘under His wings.’  On the cross Messiah ‘spread out His wings/arms’ and gathered in Himself our sins just as the onions He created as a shadow picture of Himself.

Garlic is similiar to onions in its healing properties.  The word for garlic in Hebrew is שום ‘shum’ which comes from the Hebrew root שם ‘shem’ which means name or breath which is why garlic is called ‘shum’ for its strong odor or ‘breath.’ On the cross, Messiah displayed the name/character of God which is love.

Amazingly, the word for trespass offering, אשם ‘asham,’ comes from this same root, שם ‘shem.’

Isa 53:10  But Jehovah pleased to crush Him, to make Him sick, so that If He should put His soul as a guilt offering
(אשם ‘asham’), He shall see His seed; He shall prolong His days; and the will of Jehovah shall prosper in His hand.

The Resurrection

The English word ‘resurrection’ comes from the Latin ‘resurrectionem’ which means a rising again from the dead from the root ‘resurgere’ which means to rise again.

Resurgere’ is the source of the English word ‘resurgent’ which means to ‘rise again’ from the root ‘surgere’ which means to rise as in a rising stream or fountain.  As seen in the study on Spring, a fountain or spring is linked to the resurrection and is also the source of a thing in Hebrew thought.  The English word for ‘source’ comes from the Hebrew word שרש ‘sheresh’ which means the root of a plant.

According to Isaac Mozeson, שרש ‘sheresh’ is also the source of the Latin word ‘surgere’ which means to rise, as in a plant rising out of the ground.  Interestingly, the Hebrew word for rise is קם ‘qum’ which is speaking of a plant rising out of the ground.  A related word is כן ‘kun’ which is speaking of a seed planted in the ground which dies then ‘resurrects.’  When the seed opens the roots begin to form the base of the plant by going down into the soil. The plant rises out of the ground forming the stalk of the plant.

The word resurrect is not seen in the TaNaKH.  The two words just mentioned,  קם ‘qum’ & כן ‘kun,’ have the sense of rising but are not translated as resurrect in the Scriptures.  The first mention of the word resurrection is found in the book of Matthew.

Mat 22:23  On that day, Sadducees, who say there is no resurrection, came to Him. And they questioned Him,
Mat 22:24  saying, Teacher, Moses said, If any should die not having children, his brother shall marry his wife, and shall raise up seed to his brother. Deut. 25:5
Mat 22:25  And seven brothers were with us. And having married, the first expired, and not having seed left his wife to his brother.
Mat 22:26  In the same way also the second, and the third, until the seven.
Mat 22:27  And last of all, the woman also died.
Mat 22:28  Then in the resurrection, of which of the seven will she be wife? For all had her.
Mat 22:29  And answering, Jesus said to them, You err, not knowing the Scriptures nor the power of God.
Mat 22:30  For in the resurrection they neither marry nor are given in marriage, but they are as the angels of God in Heaven.
Mat 22:31  But concerning the resurrection of the dead, have you not read that spoken to you by God, saying:
Mat 22:32  “I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob?” God is not God of the dead, but of the living. Ex. 3:6

This portion of Scripture is found in Exodus 3 where God declares His Name to Moses.  His Name is His Word/Mark.

Rom 1:1  Paul, a slave of Jesus Christ, a called apostle, separated to the gospel of God,
Rom 1:2  which He promised before through His prophets in the holy Scriptures,
Rom 1:3  concerning His Son who came of the seed of David according to flesh,
Rom 1:4  who was marked out {ὁρίζω ‘horizo’} the Son of God in power, according to the Spirit of holiness, by the resurrection of the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord;

G3724
ὁρίζω
horizō
Thayer Definition:
1) to define
1a) to mark out the boundaries or limits (of any place or thing)
1b1) that which has been determined, acc. to appointment, decree
1b2) to ordain, determine, appoint
Part of Speech: verb
A Related Word by Thayer’s/Strong’s Number: from G3725

It is only through the resurrection that we will be formed into His image.

1Jn 3:1  See what manner of love the Father has given us, that we may be called children of God. For this reason the world does not know us, because it did not know Him.
1Jn 3:2  Beloved, now we are the children of God, and it was not yet revealed what we shall be. But we know that if He is revealed, we shall be like Him, because we shall see Him as He is.

ὁρίζω ‘horizō’ is the source of the English word ‘horizon.’  In Aramaic this is translated as ‘ruoshma.’

2Co 3:7  Now if the ministration of death was engraved (‘aetrashmat’ from ‘ruoshma’) upon stones in writing, and was so glorious that the children of Israel could not look on the face of Moses, on account of the glory upon his face which vanished away;

*Here we see this word being linked to the Torah/Word which was engraved on stone.  In the human body the ‘word’ is engraved on stone (DNA)…

Rom 8:29 He knew them in advance and he marked (Greek ‘predestined’) them with the likeness of the image of his Son that he might be the first-born among many brethren.

Again the connection to the mark and the image.
Eph 1:4  according as he had previously chosen us in him, before the foundation of the world, that we might be holy and without blame before him; and, in love, predestinated (Aramaic – chosen) us for himself;

The chosen people are marked with the mark of God…those who keep the commandments of God and the testimony (belief in Messiah Jesus – Revelation 12:17).

Eph 1:11 By whom we have been chosen, as he had marked (Greek ‘predestined’) us from the beginning so he wanted to carry out everything according to the good judgment of his will:

This connection of predestination and being marked is connected by the heavenly books.

Psa 56:8  You have counted my wandering; O put my tear in Your bottle; are they not in Your Book?

Psa 139:16  Your eyes saw my embryo; and in Your book all my members were written the days they were formed, and not one was yet among them.
Mal 3:16  Then those fearing Jehovah spoke together, each man to his neighbor. And Jehovah gave attention and heard. And a Book of Remembrance was written before Him for those who feared Jehovah, and for those esteeming His name.

The word ‘Ruoshma’ in the Aramaic Peshitta = the Greek word προορίζω ‘proorizo.’

G4309
προορίζω
proorizō
Thayer Definition:
1) to predetermine, decide beforehand
2) in the NT of God decreeing from eternity
3) to foreordain, appoint beforehand
Part of Speech: verb
A Related Word by Thayer’s/Strong’s Number: from G4253 (pro – before) and G3724 (horizo  mark out)

G3724
ὁρίζω
horizō
Thayer Definition:
1) to define
1a) to mark out the boundaries or limits (of any place or thing)
1b1) that which has been determined, acc. to appointment, decree
1b2) to ordain, determine, appoint
Part of Speech: verb
A Related Word by Thayer’s/Strong’s Number: from G3725

The meaning of horizo is linked with the above definition of ‘mark.’  It means to mark out a boundary.  The English word horizon comes from this Greek word.

This word obviously links to the sun as it is the horizon where the sun rises and sets.  It further linked to ‘predestination’ as we are chosen before the foundation of the world (Ephesians 1:4).  In Hebrew this is the concept of עלם ‘olam’ which is usually translated as forever or eternity but in concrete thought means ‘beyond the horizon.’  The word for time in Hebrew, עת ‘et,’ means to ‘see the mark.’

What is this ‘mark’?  It is the sun setting (death) and rising (resurrection) above the horizon.

Rom 1:1  Paul, a slave of Jesus Christ, a called apostle, separated to the gospel of God,
Rom 1:2  which He promised before through His prophets in the holy Scriptures,
Rom 1:3  concerning His Son who came of the seed of David according to flesh,
Rom 1:4  who was marked out the Son of God in power, according to the Spirit of holiness, by the resurrection of the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord;

Murdock Aramaic Translation
Rom 1:4  and was made known as the Son of God, by power, and by the Holy Spirit,) who arose from the dead, Jesus Messiah, our Lord,


ואתידע  ‘vayteedah’ corresponds to the Hebrew ידע ‘yada’ – to make known.  The literally meaning of ידע ‘yada,’ is when man and woman come together and become one.  When the seed is planted in the womb.  This leads to a child being born, bursting forth from the womb.  Resurrection from the dead is the same concept.  The seed of the Word is planted in our hearts, this is the literally meaning of ‘born again’.  It literally means to be conceived from above.  We die, just as the seed must die in the earth.  We are then resurrected by the power of the Holy Spirit as new creatures, just as the plant springs forth from the earth.

It was declared that He is the Son by the resurrection
Rom 1:4  who was marked out the Son of God in power, according to the Spirit of holiness, by the resurrection of the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord;

There are two choices.  The Tree of Life or the Tree of knowledge.  The true light, or the false light.  We can put our faith in the Messiah which means our flesh has to die.  When we are resurrected we will be in His image, by His power and righteousness.

The fruit of the tree of knowledge is about trying to attain that eternal status by our works.  The Hindus and Buddhists have the concept of reincarnation.  The Kabbalists have the concept of climbing the Sephirotic ladder to reassemble Adam Kadmon.  The Catholic has the sacraments.  The mystery religions have initiations to attain this level.  All of these concepts have degrees and graduations, which is one of the meanings of the Holy Grail.  The “Holy Grail” doctrine has two meanings.  One is the cup of the New Testament which Messiah offers.  The other is the path of ‘ye shall not die.’

So man can choose.  Grace or works.  Faith in Messiah alone, or ‘works of the law’.

The Greek word for resurrection is ἀνάστασις anastasis’ which is used 44 times in Scripture.  This number further displays the true resurrection versus the false.  The true mark versus the mark of the beast.

The number 44 is linked to birth.  The word to give birth/child in Hebrew is ילד ‘yeled’ whose numerical value is 44.  Father + Mother {אב + אם} also has the value of 44.

The phrase ‘He is redeemed’ יגאל ‘yigal’ (Leviticus 25:30) is equivalent to 44, as well as ‘in the Jubilee’ ביבל ‘bayovel’ (Leviticus 25:28).

The Hebrew letter which is equivalent to 4 is ד  ‘dalet’ so 44 would be displayed דד.  This is the Hebrew word for bosom or love.  The bosom is linked to the love of the Father in giving His only begotten Son for the salvation of mankind.  It is interesting to note that the Hebrew word for lamb טלה ‘taleh’ also has the numerical value of 44.

דד (dalet dalet).  In Paleo Hebrew this would be rendered:

Combined these form the hexagram

44 ft = 528 inches = 26 cubits

26 = יהוה ‘Yahweh’

528 inches…The gematria of 528 also has interesting connections to the current study.

The Number 528 – THE KEY

He resurrects us in/from His Word

Psa 119:25  DALETH: My soul clings to the dust; give me life according to Your Word.
Psa 119:37  Turn my eyes from seeing vanity; in Your way give me life.
Psa 119:40  Behold, I have longed for Your Precepts; grant to me life in Your righteousness.
Psa 119:50  This is my comfort in my affliction; for Your Word has given me life.
Psa 119:93  I will never forget Your Precepts; for with them You gave me life.
Psa 119:107  I am greatly afflicted; O Jehovah, give me life according to Your Word.
Psa 119:149  Hear my voice by Your mercy, O Jehovah; give me life by Your judgment.
Psa 119:156  O Jehovah, Your tender mercies are great; give me life according to Your judgments.
Psa 119:159  See how I love Your Precepts, O Jehovah; give me life according to Your mercy.
Rom 8:2  For the Law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus set me free from the law of sin and of death.

Php 3:20  For our citizenship is in Heaven, from where we also wait for a Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ,
Php 3:21  who will transform our body of humiliation, for it to be conformed to His body of glory, according to the working of Him to be able even to subject all things under Himself.

2Co 4:14  knowing that He who raised up the Lord Jesus will also raise us up through Jesus, and will present us with you.

It is interesting to note that there are 66 bones in the human arm and shoulders corresponding to the 66 books of the Bible.

The Messiah, the Word, is likened to the Arm of God (Isaiah 53:1).  The bones of the human arm and hand are a picture of the Word. The Messiah is specifically described as the ‘Hand’ of God (Psalm 118:14-16; Isaiah 48:13; Acts 5:31 etc.). The human hand consists of 27 bones which correspond to the 27 books of the New Testament. These bones are divided into 3 parts. 5 metacarpal bones of the palm corresponding to the Gospels & Revelation. 14 bones of the fingers corresponding to the epistles of Paul and 8 bones in the wrist corresponding to the epistles of the other Apostles…

The hand is connected to the three bones of the Arm (Isaiah 40:10; 63:5-8; Psalm 44:3; Deuteronomy 33:2 etc.) which correspond to the Torah, Prophets & Writings. The arm connects to the shoulder of which we are yoked to the Most High (Matthew 11:30), walking in one consent (Zephaniah 3:9).

In short, the 27 bones of the hand connect to 3 bones in the arm which equals 30.  30 bones in each arm and hand add up to 60.  This is amazing as the arms connect to the shoulders which consist of the 2 shoulder bones themselves that are connected to 2 clavicles and 2 scapulas which = 6.  60+6= 66…the exact number of books in the Bible!

The Hebrew word for shoulder is שכם ‘shekhem’ which is also linked to the resurrection as the word literally means to rise early and place a load on the shoulders in order to depart.

Gen 22:3  And Abraham started up early {שכם ‘shekhem’} in the morning and saddled his ass, and he took two of his youths with him, and his son Isaac. And he split wood for a burnt offering, and rose up and went to the place which God had said to him.

Rev 22:16  I, Jesus, sent My angel to testify these things to you over the assemblies. I am the Root and Offspring of David, the bright and morning Star.

Rev 3:7  And to the angel of the assembly in Philadelphia, write: These things says the Holy One, the True One, the One having “the key of David,” “the One opening, and no one shuts; and shuts, and no one opens:” Isa. 22:22

Isa 22:22  And the key of the house of David I will lay on his shoulder, so that he opens, and no one shuts; and he shuts, and no one opens.

The English word ‘clavicle’ or ‘collarbone’ comes from the Latin word ‘clavicula’ which means a key.  In the days of Messiah, keys were shaped like the modern day letter F.

F is the 6th letter in the English alphabet corresponding to the Hebrew letter ו ‘vav’.  ‘Vav’ is the nail.

Isa 22:22  And the key of the house of David I will lay on his shoulder, so that he opens, and no one shuts; and he shuts, and no one opens.
Isa 22:23  And I will drive him as a nail in a sure place; and he shall be for a throne of glory to his father’s house.

The muscle that hangs off of the clavicle is the Deltoid

The deltoid is called so because it is in the shape of the Greek letter Delta (triangle).  The Greek letter Δ’delta’ comes from the Hebrew letter ד ‘dalet’ which means a door.

The key (clavicle) to the house of David.  דוד ‘david’ in Hebrew is 2 ‘dalets’ and 1 ‘vav.’  2 ‘deltoids’ and a nail/key.

The English word shoulder comes from the Hebrew word סבל ‘saval’ which means to bear a burden.  This too points to Messiah.

Mat 11:29  Take My yoke upon you and learn from Me, because I am meek and lowly in heart, “and you will find rest to your souls.” Jer. 6:16
Mat 11:30  For My yoke is easy, and My burden is light.

The word for yoke in Matthew 11:29-30 is ζυγός ‘zugos’ which is used to translate multiple words in Hebrew.  One is סבל mentioned above.  ζυγός is also used to translate שכם ‘shekhem’ which means shoulder.  In Matthew 11:29-30, ζυγός is referring to a yoke that a beast of burden carries while plowing a field.  In Hebrew this is the word על.  על also means to rise up, such as in the smoke of a burnt offering (Genesis 22:2).

על means to see the staff.  As mentioned before in the section on the lamb, the letter ל ‘lamed’ in Hebrew is speaking of the goad or staff of the Shepherd.  The value of this letter is 30. The word למד ‘lamed’ means to teach or make disciples.    ‘Lamed’ is also the 12th letter of the Hebrew alphabet, linking to the twelve tribes of Israel, His flock.

The Hebrew word יהודה ‘yehudah’ or Jew also has the numerical value of 30.

יהודה ‘yehudah’ comes from the Hebrew root ידה ‘yadah’ which means to raise the hands in confession, giving thanks or praise.  Recall that the arms display the number 66, the number of books in the Bible.  The Word.

It is interesting to note that in Song of Songs 5:6, ‘my beloved’ has a numerical value of 30 as well.  This word in Hebrew is דוד ‘dod’ which means the bosom.  דוד is also the spelling for David, mentioned above.

Isa 40:10  Behold, the Lord Jehovah will come with strength, and His arm {Isaiah 53 – His Arm is the Lamb} rules for Him. Behold, His reward is with Him, and His wage before Him.
Isa 40:11  He shall feed His flock like a shepherd; He shall gather lambs with His arm; and carry them in His bosom; those with young He will lead;

 

Passover & Hebrews

A Hebrew is one who has passed from death to life, through the death and resurrection of the Lord Jesus which Passover portrays.

1Jn 3:14  We know that we have passed from death unto life, because we love the brethren. He that loveth not his brother abideth in death.
Joh 5:24  Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that heareth my word, and believeth on him that sent me, hath everlasting life, and shall not come into condemnation; but is passed from death unto life.

The Hebrew word for Hebrew is עברי ‘ivri’ which means one who has ‘passed over.’

avar passover
עברי ‘ivri’ comes from the root עבר ‘avar’ which comes from the two letter root בר ‘bar’ which means “pure” but is also used of The Son of God.

Psa 2:12  Kiss the Son {בר ‘bar’}, lest he be angry, and ye perish from the way, when his wrath is kindled but a little. Blessed are all they that put their trust in him.

We are made “pure” sons of God through Him.

1Jn 3:1  Behold, what manner of love the Father hath bestowed upon us, that we should be called the sons of God: therefore the world knoweth us not, because it knew him not.
1Jn 3:2  Beloved, now are we the sons of God, and it doth not yet appear what we shall be: but we know that, when he shall appear, we shall be like him; for we shall see him as he is.
1Jn 3:3  And every man that hath this hope in him purifieth himself, even as he is pure.

1Pe 1:22  Seeing ye have purified your souls in obeying the truth through the Spirit unto unfeigned love of the brethren, see that ye love one another with a pure heart fervently:
1Pe 1:23  Being born again, not of corruptible seed, but of incorruptible, by the word of God, which liveth and abideth for ever.
1Pe 1:24  For all flesh is as grass, and all the glory of man as the flower of grass. The grass withereth, and the flower thereof falleth away:
1Pe 1:25  But the word of the Lord endureth for ever. And this is the word which by the gospel is preached unto you.

Passed over – Forgiven

Rom 3:24  being justified freely by His grace through the redemption in Christ Jesus,
Rom 3:25  whom God set forth as a propitiation through faith in His blood, as a demonstration of His righteousness through the passing over of the sins that had taken place before, in the forbearance of God,
Rom 3:26  for a demonstration of His righteousness in the present time, for His being just and justifying the one that is of the faith of Jesus.

The Greek word translated as ‘passing over’ is πάρεσις ‘paresis’ which is translated in the King James Version as remission.  Webster defines remission as a ‘release,’ ‘forgiveness,’ or ‘pardon.’  The giving up of the punishment due to a crime.

Albert Barnes on Romans 3:25
For the remission of sins – Margin, “Passing over.” The word used here πάρεσιν  paresin occurs no where else in the New Testament, nor in the Septuagint. It means “passing by,” as not noticing, and hence, forgiving. A similar idea occurs in 2Sa_24:10, and Mic_7:18. “Who is a God like unto thee, that passeth by the transgression of the remnant of his inheritance?” In Romans it means for the “pardoning,” or in order to pardon past transgression.

2Sa 24:10  And after he had numbered the people, the heart of David struck him. And David said to Jehovah, I have sinned greatly in that which I have done. And now, O Jehovah, I pray, take away {עבר ‘avar’} the iniquity of your servant, for I have acted very foolishly.

Mic 7:18  Who is a God like You, forgiving iniquity and passing by {עבר ‘avar’} the transgression of the remnant of His possession? He does not make strong His anger forever, for He delights in grace.

עבר ‘avar’ is equated with פסח ‘pesach’.

Exo 12:23  For the LORD will pass through {עבר ‘avar’} to smite the Egyptians; and when he seeth the blood upon the lintel, and on the two side posts, the LORD will pass over the door, and will not suffer the destroyer to come in unto your houses to smite you.
Exo 12:27  That ye shall say, It is the sacrifice of the LORD’S passover {פסח ‘pesach’}, who passed over {פסח ‘pesach’} the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt, when he smote the Egyptians, and delivered our houses. And the people bowed the head and worshipped.

 

Passion of the Christ

Act 1:3  To whom also he shewed himself alive after his passion by many infallible proofs, being seen of them forty days, and speaking of the things pertaining to the kingdom of God:

The Greek word translated as ‘passion’ is πάσχω ‘pascho’ which is closely related to the Greek word for Passover, πάσχα ‘pascha.’  πάσχω ‘pascho’ also means to suffer, as in the suffering of Messiah on the cross.

Mat 16:21  From that time forth began Jesus to shew unto his disciples, how that he must go unto Jerusalem, and suffer {πάσχω ‘pascho’} many things of the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and be raised again the third day.
Mat 17:12  But I say unto you, That Elias is come already, and they knew him not, but have done unto him whatsoever they listed. Likewise shall also the Son of man suffer {πάσχω ‘pascho’} of them.

Mar 8:31  And he began to teach them, that the Son of man must suffer {πάσχω ‘pascho’}  many things, and be rejected of the elders, and of the chief priests, and scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again.
Mar 9:12  And he answered and told them, Elias verily cometh first, and restoreth all things; and how it is written of the Son of man, that he must suffer  {πάσχω ‘pascho’} many things, and be set at nought.
Luk 9:22  Saying, The Son of man must suffer {πάσχω ‘pascho’}  many things, and be rejected of the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be slain, and be raised the third day.
Luk 17:25  But first must he suffer {πάσχω ‘pascho’}  many things, and be rejected of this generation.
Luk 22:15  And he said unto them, With desire I have desired to eat this passover with you before I suffer {πάσχω ‘pascho’} :
Luk 24:46  And said unto them, Thus it is written, and thus it behoved Christ to suffer {πάσχω ‘pascho’} , and to rise from the dead the third day:
Luk 24:26  Ought not Christ to have suffered {πάσχω ‘pascho’} these things, and to enter into his glory?
Act 3:18  But those things, which God before had shewed by the mouth of all his prophets, that Christ should suffer {πάσχω ‘pascho’} , he hath so fulfilled.

Heb 2:17  Wherefore in all things it behoved him to be made like unto his brethren, that he might be a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to make reconciliation for the sins of the people.
Heb 2:18  For in that he himself hath suffered {πάσχω ‘pascho’} being tempted, he is able to succour them that are tempted.

Heb 9:26  For then must he often have suffered  {πάσχω ‘pascho’} since the foundation of the world: but now once in the end of the world hath he appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself.
Heb 9:27  And as it is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the judgment:
Heb 9:28  So Christ was once offered to bear the sins of many; and unto them that look for him shall he appear the second time without sin unto salvation.

πάσχω ‘pascho’ is used in the Septuagint to translate the Hebrew word חלה ‘chalah’ which means a piercing.

Isa 53:3  He is despised and abandoned of men, a Man of pains, and acquainted with sickness. And as it were hiding our faces from Him, He being despised, and we did not value Him.
Isa 53:4  Surely He has borne our sicknesses, and He carried our pain; yet we esteemed Him plagued, smitten by God, and afflicted.
Isa 53:5  But He was wounded for our transgressions; He was bruised for our iniquities; the
chastisement of our peace was upon Him; and with His wounds we ourselves are healed.

Medical Aspects of The Crucifixion: The Agony of Love

by Dr. Mark Eastman

On the evening before His crucifixion Jesus was gathered with His disciples in the upper room, sharing with them some of the most intimate truths of His entire ministry. As He discussed the love of the Father and His love for His disciples he declared:

Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends. John 15:13

Though they did not realize it at the time, the disciples were only hours from the practical realization of this truth. One of the subtle evidences of the supernatural origin of the Biblical text is that astonishing events are often described in extremely brief narratives.

This is perhaps best illustrated in the matter-of-fact way in which the crucifixion of Jesus Christ-the most pivotal event in the history of the universe-is described in the Gospel accounts.

After Jesus was examined and declared to be without fault by the Roman Procurator Pontius Pilate, he delivered Him to be judged by the assembled crowd. When the opportunity arose to decide the destiny of Jesus, the crowd and the Jewish leadership cried out saying, “Crucify Him, crucify Him.”

The horrifying events of the next six hours were preceded by the simple words:

Then delivered he Him therefore unto them to be crucified. And they took Jesus, and led him away. John 19:16

“Great Drops of Blood”

The physical suffering of Jesus began in the Garden of Gethsemane on the evening before His crucifixion. While the disciples slept, the Gospel of Luke records that the LORD “being in an agony he prayed more earnestly: and his sweat was as it were great drops of blood falling down to the ground.”

The notion that someone could actually sweat blood seems contrived. However, there is a rare but recognized condition called hematohydrosis, in which capillary blood vessels that feed the sweat glands rupture, causing them to express blood. This usually occurs under conditions of extreme physical or emotional stress. Jesus wasn’t sweating blood because he was afraid of the physical pain of the cross. Indeed, the book of Hebrews tells us that Jesus looked forward to the cross:

Looking unto Jesus, the author and finisher of our faith, who for the joy that was set before Him endured the cross, despising the shame, and has sat down at the right hand of the throne of God. Hebrews 12:2

The Trials

After Jesus’ arrest they led Him away to the High Priest Caiaphas, where the Scribes and elders were assembled. During this inquisition we are told that “some began to spit on Him, and to blindfold Him, and to beat Him, and to say to Him, ‘Prophesy!’ And the officers struck Him with the palms of their hands.

Beatings about the face received by a blindfolded individual cause even worse trauma because the victim cannot “roll with the punches.” In the hours that followed Jesus received two additional beatings at the hands of Roman soldiers. Severe disfigurement of the face would certainly have resulted from the brutal treatment. It is likely that the eyelids were swollen shut as a result of such beatings. This was done in fulfillment of Isaiah 52:13-14:

Behold, my servant shall deal prudently, he shall be exalted and extolled, and be very high. As many were astonished at thee; his visage was so marred more than any man, and his form more than the sons of men.

The Scourging

After His trial before Pontius Pilate, Jesus was scourged (flogged) by the Roman guards. This process typically involved a whip with numerous leather thongs, 18-24 inches long, with bits of metal, bone or glass embedded in the leather. At times they would use an iron rod to beat the prisoner. According to Jewish custom, a prisoner was usually flogged 39 times (Forty minus one was a sign of Jewish mercy!)

Scourging was an extreme form of punishment. The skin on the victim’s back was usually shredded, thus exposing the underlying muscle and skeletal structures. Severe blood loss and dehydration were the rule. Many victims died from such scourging.

After the scourging of Jesus, the Roman soldiers beat Him a second time with their hands and with a reed. Then they put on him a “crown of thorns.”

Jesus had not drunk since the night before, so the combination of the beatings, the crown of thorns, and the scourging would have set into motion an irreversible process of severe dehydration and cardiorespiratory failure. All of this was done so that the prophecy of Isaiah would be fulfilled:

I gave my back to the smiters, and my cheeks to them that plucked off the hair: I hid not my face from shame and spitting. Isaiah 50:6

And:

But he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon him; and with his stripes we are healed. Isaiah 53:5

Crucifixion

crucifixion
Crucifixion was invented by the Persians between 300-400 b.c. It was “perfected” by the Romans in the first century b.c. It is arguably the most painful death ever invented by man and is where we get our term “excruciating.” It was reserved primarily for the most vicious of criminals.

The most common device used for crucifixion was a wooden cross, which consisted of an upright pole permanently fixed in the ground with a removable crossbar, usually weighing between 75-100 lbs. Victims of crucifixion were typically stripped naked and their clothing divided by the Roman guards. In Jesus’ case this was done in fulfillment of Psalm 22:18, “They divide My garments among them, and for My clothing they cast lots.”

As a gesture of “Roman kindness” the prisoner was offered a mixture of vinegar (gall) and wine as a mild anesthetic. This anesthetic was refused by Jesus. Consequently, He bore it all! The Apostle Peter stated of Jesus:

Who his own self bare our sins in his own body on the tree, that we, being dead to sins, should live unto righteousness: by whose stripes ye were healed. 1 Peter 2:24

The victim was then placed on his back, arms stretched out and nailed to the cross bar. The nails, which were generally about 7-9 inches long, were placed between the bones of the forearm (the radius and ulna) and the small bones of the hands (the carpal bones). (Figure 1.)

The placement of the nail at this point had several effects. First it ensured that the victim would indeed hang there until dead. Secondly, a nail placed at this point would sever the largest nerve in the hand called the median nerve.

The severing of this nerve is a medical catastrophe. In addition to severe burning pain the destruction of this nerve causes permanent paralysis of the hand. Furthermore, by nailing the victim at this point in the wrist, there would be minimal bleeding and there would be no bones broken! Thus scriptures were fulfilled:

I can count all my bones: they look and stare upon me. Psalm 22:17

He keepeth all his bones: not one of them is broken. Psalm 34:20

The positioning of the feet is probably the most critical part of the mechanics of crucifixion. First the knees were flexed about 45 degrees and the feet were flexed (bent downward) an additional 45 degrees until they were parallel the vertical pole. An iron nail about 7-9 inches long was driven through the feet between the 2nd and 3rd metatarsal bones. In this position the nail would sever the dorsal pedal artery of the foot, but the resultant bleeding would be insufficient to cause death.

The Catastrophic Result

The resulting position on the cross sets up a horrific sequence of events which results in a slow, painful death. Having been pinned to the cross, the victim now has an impossible position to maintain. (Figure 2)

crucifixion 2
With the knees flexed at about 45 degrees, the victim must bear his weight with the muscles of the thigh. However, this is an almost impossible task-try to stand with your knees flexed at 45 degrees for 5 minutes. As the strength of the legs gives out, the weight of the body must now be borne by the arms and shoulders. The result is that within a few minutes of being placed on the cross, the shoulders will become dislocated. Minutes later the elbows and wrists become dislocated. The result of these dislocations is that the arms are as much as 6-9 inches longer than normal.

With the arms dislocated, considerable body weight is transferred to the chest, causing the rib cage to be elevated in a state of perpetual inhalation. Consequently, in order to exhale the victim must push down on his feet to allow the rib muscles to relax. The problem is that the victim cannot push very long because the legs are extremely fatigued. As time goes on, the victim is less and less able to bear weight on the legs, causing further dislocation of the arms and further raising of the chest wall, making breathing more and more difficult.

The result of this process is a series of catastrophic physiological effects. Because the victim cannot maintain adequate ventilation of the lungs, the blood oxygen level begins to diminish and the blood carbon dioxide (CO2) level begins to rise. This rising CO2 level stimulates the heart to beat faster in order to increase the delivery of oxygen and the removal of CO2.

However, due to the pinning of the victim and the limitations of oxygen delivery, the victim cannot deliver more oxygen and the rising heart rate only increases oxygen demand. So this process sets up a vicious cycle of increasing oxygen demand-which cannot be met-followed by an ever increasing heart rate. After several hours the heart begins to fail, the lungs collapse and fill up with fluid, which further decreases oxygen delivery to the tissues. The blood loss and hyperventilation combines to cause severe dehydration. That’s why Jesus said, “I thirst.”

Over a period of several hours the combination of collapsing lungs, a failing heart, dehydration, and the inability to get adequate oxygen supplies to the tissues cause the eventual death of the victim. The victim, in effect, cannot breath properly and slowly suffocates to death. In cases of severe cardiac stress, such as crucifixion, a victim’s heart can even burst. This process is called “Cardiac Rupture.” Therefore it could be said that Jesus died of a “broken heart!”

To slow the process of death the executioners put a small wooden seat on the cross, which would allow the victim the privilege of bearing his weight on his buttocks. The effect of this was that it could take up to nine days to die on a cross.

When the Romans wanted to expedite death they would simply break the legs of the victim, causing him to suffocate in a matter of minutes. At three o’clock in the afternoon Jesus said, “Tetelastai,” meaning “it is finished.” Then He gave up the ghost. When the soldiers came to Jesus to break His legs, He was already dead. Not a bone of Him was broken!

How Should We Then Live?

I realize that it is difficult to read of the details of Jesus’ physical sufferings. And yet, when we realize that He looked forward, on our behalf, to the cross, we are overwhelmed with His practical demonstration of love and, hopefully, a personal realization of our unworthiness. How should we then live? I believe that the Apostle Paul said it best:

Let this mind be in you which was also in Christ Jesus, who, being in the form of God, did not consider it robbery to be equal with God, but made Himself of no reputation, taking the form of a bondservant, and coming in the likeness of men. And being found in appearance as a man, He humbled Himself and became obedient to the point of death, even the death of the cross. Therefore God also has highly exalted Him and given Him the name which is above every name, that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of those in heaven, and of those on earth, and of those under the earth, and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father. Philippians 2:5-11

A Physician Analyzes the Crucifixion

From New Wine Magazine, April 1982.
Originally published in Arizona Medicine, March 1965, Arizona Medical Association.

A medical explanation of what Jesus endured on the day He died
by Dr. C. Truman Davis.  Dr. C. Truman Davis is a graduate of the University of Tennessee College of Medicine. He is a practicing ophthalmologist, a pastor, and author of a book about medicine and the Bible.

Several years ago I became interested in the physical aspects of the passion, or suffering, of Jesus Christ when I read an account of the crucifixion in Jim Bishop’s book, The Day Christ Died. I suddenly realized that I had taken the crucifixion more or less for granted all these years – that I had grown callous to its horror by a too-easy familiarity with the grim details. It finally occurred to me that, as a physician, I did not even know the actual immediate cause of Christ’s death. The gospel writers do not help much on this point. Since crucifixion and scourging were so common during their lifetimes, they undoubtedly considered a detailed description superfluous. For that reason we have only the concise words of the evangelists: “Pilate, having scourged Jesus, delivered Him to them to be crucified … and they crucified Him.”

Despite the gospel accounts’ silence on the details of Christ’s crucifixion, many have looked into this subject in the past. In my personal study of the event from a medical viewpoint, I am indebted especially to Dr. Pierre Barbet, a French surgeon who did exhaustive historical and experimental research and wrote extensively on the topic.

An attempt to examine the infinite psychic and spiritual suffering of the Incarnate1 God in atonement2 for the sins of fallen man is beyond the scope of this article. However, the physiological and anatomical aspects of our Lord’s passion we can examine in some detail. What did the body of Jesus of Nazareth actually endure during those hours of torture?

Gethsemane

The physical passion of Christ began in Gethsemane. Of the many aspects of His initial suffering, the one which is of particular physiological interest is the bloody sweat. Interestingly enough, the physician, St. Luke, is the only evangelist to mention this occurrence. He says, “And being in an agony, he prayed the longer. And his sweat became as drops of blood, trickling down upon the ground” (Luke 22:44 KJV).

Every attempt imaginable has been used by modern scholars to explain away the phenomenon of bloody sweat, apparently under the mistaken impression that it simply does not occur. A great deal of effort could be saved by consulting the medical literature. Though very rare, the phenomenon of hematidrosis, or bloody sweat, is well documented. Under great emotional stress, tiny capillaries in the sweat glands can break, thus mixing blood with sweat. This process alone could have produced marked weakness and possible shock.

Although Jesus’ betrayal and arrest are important portions of the passion story, the next event in the account which is significant from a medical perspective is His trial before the Sanhedrin and Caiaphas, the High Priest. Here the first physical trauma was inflicted. A soldier struck Jesus across the face for remaining silent when questioned by Caiaphas. The palace guards then blindfolded Him, mockingly taunted Him to identify them as each passed by, spat on Him, and struck Him in the face.

Before Pilate

In the early morning, battered and bruised, dehydrated, and worn out from a sleepless night, Jesus was taken across Jerusalem to the Praetorium of the Fortress Antonia, the seat of government of the Procurator of Judea, Pontius Pilate. We are familiar with Pilate’s action in attempting to shift responsibility to Herod Antipas, the Tetrarch of Judea. Jesus apparently suffered no physical mistreatment at the hands of Herod and was returned to Pilate. It was then, in response to the outcry of the mob, that Pilate ordered Barabbas released and condemned Jesus to scourging and crucifixion.

Preparations for Jesus’ scourging were carried out at Caesar’s orders. The prisoner was stripped of His clothing and His hands tied to a post above His head. The Roman legionnaire stepped forward with the flagrum, or flagellum, in his hand. This was a short whip consisting of several heavy, leather thongs with two small balls of lead attached near the ends of each. The heavy whip was brought down with full force again and again across Jesus’ shoulders, back, and legs. At first the weighted thongs cut through the skin only. Then, as the blows continued, they cut deeper into the subcutaneous tissues, producing first an oozing of blood from the capillaries and veins of the skin and finally spurting arterial bleeding from vessels in the underlying muscles.

The small balls of lead first produced large deep bruises that were broken open by subsequent blows. Finally, the skin of the back was hanging in long ribbons, and the entire area was an unrecognizable mass of torn, bleeding tissue. When it was determined by the centurion in charge that the prisoner was near death, the beating was finally stopped.

Mockery

The half-fainting Jesus was then untied and allowed to slump to the stone pavement, wet with his own blood. The Roman soldiers saw a great joke in this provincial Jew claiming to be a king. They threw a robe across His shoulders and placed a stick in His hand for a scepter. They still needed a crown to make their travesty complete. Small flexible branches covered with long thorns, commonly used for kindling fires in the charcoal braziers in the courtyard, were plaited into the shape of a crude crown. The crown was pressed into his scalp and again there was copious bleeding as the thorns pierced the very vascular tissue. After mocking Him and striking Him across the face, the soldiers took the stick from His hand and struck Him across the head, driving the thorns deeper into His scalp. Finally, they tired of their sadistic sport and tore the robe from His back. The robe had already become adherent to the clots of blood and serum in the wounds, and its removal, just as in the careless removal of a surgical bandage, caused excruciating pain. The wounds again began to bleed.

Golgotha

In deference to Jewish custom, the Romans apparently returned His garments. The heavy patibulum of the cross was tied across His shoulders. The procession of the condemned Christ, two thieves, and the execution detail of Roman soldiers headed by a centurion began its slow journey along the route which we know today as the Via Dolorosa.

In spite of Jesus’ efforts to walk erect, the weight of the heavy wooden beam, together with the shock produced by copious loss of blood, was too much. He stumbled and fell. The rough wood of the beam gouged into the lacerated skin and muscles of the shoulders. He tried to rise, but human muscles had been pushed beyond their endurance. The centurion, anxious to proceed with the crucifixion, selected a stalwart North African onlooker, Simon of Cyrene, to carry the cross. Jesus followed, still bleeding and sweating the cold, clammy sweat of shock. The 650-yard journey from the Fortress Antonia to Golgotha was finally completed. The prisoner was again stripped of His clothing except for a loin cloth which was allowed the Jews.

The crucifixion began. Jesus was offered wine mixed with myrrh, a mild analgesic, pain-reliving mixture. He refused the drink. Simon was ordered to place the patibulum on the ground, and Jesus was quickly thrown backward, with His shoulders against the wood. The legionnaire felt for the depression at the front of the wrist. He drove a heavy, square wrought-iron nail through the wrist and deep into the wood. Quickly, he moved to the other side and repeated the action, being careful not to pull the arms too tightly, but to allow some flexion and movement. The patibulum was then lifted into place at the top of the stipes4, and the titulus reading “Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews” was nailed into place.

The left foot was pressed backward against the right foot. With both feet extended, toes down, a nail was driven through the arch of each, leaving the knees moderately flexed. The victim was now crucified.

On the Cross

As Jesus slowly sagged down with more weight on the nails in the wrists, excruciating, fiery pain shot along the fingers and up the arms to explode in the brain. The nails in the wrists were putting pressure on the median nerve, large nerve trunks which traverse the mid-wrist and hand. As He pushed himself upward to avoid this stretching torment, He placed His full weight on the nail through His feet. Again there was searing agony as the nail tore through the nerves between the metatarsal bones of this feet.

At this point, another phenomenon occurred. As the arms fatigued, great waves of cramps swept over the muscles, knotting them in deep relentless, throbbing pain. With these cramps came the inability to push Himself upward. Hanging by the arm, the pectoral muscles, the large muscles of the chest, were paralyzed and the intercostal muscles, the small muscles between the ribs, were unable to act. Air could be drawn into the lungs, but could not be exhaled. Jesus fought to raise Himself in order to get even one short breath. Finally, the carbon dioxide level increased in the lungs and in the blood stream, and the cramps partially subsided.

The Last Words

Spasmodically, He was able to push Himself upward to exhale and bring in life-giving oxygen. It was undoubtedly during these periods that He uttered the seven short sentences that are recorded.

The first – looking down at the Roman soldiers throwing dice6 for His seamless garment: “Father, forgive them for they do not know what they do.”

The second – to the penitent thief: “Today, thou shalt be with me in Paradise.”

The third – looking down at Mary His mother, He said: “Woman, behold your son.” Then turning to the terrified, grief-stricken adolescent John , the beloved apostle, He said: “Behold your mother.”

The fourth cry is from the beginning of Psalm 22: “My God, My God, why have You forsaken Me?”

He suffered hours of limitless pain, cycles of twisting, joint-rending cramps, intermittent partial asphyxiation, and searing pain as tissue was torn from His lacerated back from His movement up and down against the rough timbers of the cross. Then another agony began: a deep crushing pain in the chest as the pericardium, the sac surrounding the heart, slowly filled with serum and began to compress the heart.

The prophecy in Psalm 22:14 was being fulfilled: “I am poured out like water, and all my bones are out of joint, my heart is like wax; it is melted in the midst of my bowels.”

The end was rapidly approaching. The loss of tissue fluids had reached a critical level; the compressed heart was struggling to pump heavy, thick, sluggish blood to the tissues, and the tortured lungs were making a frantic effort to inhale small gulps of air. The markedly dehydrated tissues sent their flood of stimuli to the brain. Jesus gasped His fifth cry: “I thirst.” Again we read in the prophetic psalm: “My strength is dried up like a potsherd; my tongue cleaveth to my jaws; and thou has brought me into the dust of death” (Psalm 22:15 KJV).

A sponge soaked in posca, the cheap, sour wine that was the staple drink of the Roman legionnaires, was lifted to Jesus’ lips. His body was now in extremis, and He could feel the chill of death creeping through His tissues. This realization brought forth His sixth word, possibly little more than a tortured whisper: “It is finished.” His mission of atonement had been completed. Finally, He could allow His body to die. With one last surge of strength, He once again pressed His torn feet against the nail, straightened His legs, took a deeper breath, and uttered His seventh and last cry: “Father, into Your hands I commit My spirit.”

Death

The common method of ending a crucifixion was by crurifracture, the breaking of the bones of the leg. This prevented the victim from pushing himself upward; the tension could not be relieved from the muscles of the chest, and rapid suffocation occurred. The legs of the two thieves were broken, but when the soldiers approached Jesus, they saw that this was unnecessary.

Apparently, to make doubly sure of death, the legionnaire drove his lance between the ribs, upward through the pericardium and into the heart. John 19:34 states, “And immediately there came out blood and water.” Thus there was an escape of watery fluid from the sac surrounding the heart and the blood of the interior of the heart. This is rather conclusive post-mortem evidence that Jesus died, not the usual crucifixion death by suffocation, but of heart failure due to shock and constriction of the heart by fluid in the pericardium.

Resurrection

In these events, we have seen a glimpse of the epitome of evil that man can exhibit toward his fellowman and toward God. This is an ugly sight and is likely to leave us despondent and depressed.

But the crucifixion was not the end of the story. How grateful we can be that we have a sequel: a glimpse of the infinite mercy of God toward man–the gift of atonement, the miracle of the resurrection, and the expectation of Easter morning.

Study on the Physical Death of Jesus Christ
William D. Edwards, MD;   Wesley J. Gabel, MDiv; Floyd E. Hosmer, MS, AMI

Although this is a very rare phenomenon, bloody sweat (hematidrosis or hemohidrosis) may occur in highly emotional states or in persons with bleeding disorders.  As a result of hemorrhage into the sweat glands, the skin becomes fragile and tender. Luke’s description supports the diagnosis of hematidrosis rather than eccrine chromidrosis (brown or yellow-green sweat) or stigmatization (blood oozing from the palms or elsewhere).  Although some authors have suggested that hematidrosis produced hypovolemia, we agree with Bucklin that Jesus’ actual blood loss probably was minimal. However, in the cold night air,  it may have produced chills.

Jewish Trials

Soon after midnight, Jesus was arrested at Gethsemane by the temple officials and was taken first to Annas and then to Caiaphas, the Jewish high priest for that year. (Fig 1) 1  Between 1 AM and daybreak, Jesus was tried before Caiaphas and the political Sanhedrin and was found guilty of blasphemy.  1  The guards then blindfolded Jesus, spat on him, and struck him in the face with their fists.1  Soon after daybreak, presumably at the temple (Fig 1), Jesus was tried before the religious Sanhedrin (with the Pharisees and the Sadducees) and again was found guilty of blasphemy, a crime punishable by death.

Roman Trials

Since permission for an execution had to come from the governing Romans, Jesus was taken early in the morning by the temple officials to the Praetorium of the Fortress of Antonia, the residence and governmental seat of Pontius Pilate, the procurator of Judea (Fig 1). However, Jesus was presented to Pilate not as a blasphemer but rather as a self-appointed king who would undermine the Roman authority.  Pilate made no charges against Jesus and sent him to Herod Antipas, the tetrarch of Judea. Herod likewise made no official charges and then returned Jesus to Pilate. (Fig 1)  Again, Pilate could find no basis for a legal charge against Jesus, but the people persistently demanded crucifixion, Pilate finally granted their demand and handed over Jesus to be flogged (scourged) and crucified. (McDowell has reviewed the prevailing political, religious, and economic climates in Jerusalem at the time of Jesus’ death, and Bucklin has described the various illegalities of the Jewish and Roman trials.)

The rigors of Jesus’ ministry (that is, traveling by foot throughout Palestine) would have precluded any major physical illness or a weak general constitution. Accordingly, it is reasonable to assume that Jesus was in good physical condition before his walk to Gethsemane. However, during the 12 hours between 9 PM Thursday and 9 AM Friday, he had suffered great emotional stress (as evidenced by hematidrosis), abandonment by his closest friends (the disciples), and a physical beating (after the first Jewish trial). Also, in the setting of a traumatic and sleepless night, he had been forced to walk more than 2.5 miles (4.0 km) to and from the sites of the various trials (Fig 1). These physical and emotional factors may have rendered Jesus particularly vulnerable to the adverse hemodynamic effects of the scourging.

Scourging

scourging
Fig 2.Scourging. Left, Short whip (flagrum) with lead balls and sheep bones tied into leather thongs. Center left, Naked victim tied to flogging post. Deep stripelike lacerations were usually associated with considerable blood loss. Center right, View from above, showing position of lictors. Right, Inferomedial direction of wounds.

Scourging Practices

Flogging was a legal preliminary to every Roman execution, 28 and only women and Roman senators or soldiers (except in eases of desertion) were exempt.11 The usual instrument was a short whip (flagellum) with several single or braided leather thongs of variable lengths, in which small iron balls or sharp pieces of sheep bones were tied at intervals (Fig 2).  Occasionally, staves also were used. For scourging, the man was stripped of his clothing, and his hands were tied to an upright post (Fig 2). The back, buttocks, and legs were flogged either by two soldiers (lictors) or by one who alternated positions.  The severity of the scourging depended on the disposition of the lictors and was intended to weaken the victim to a state just short of collapse or death.  After the scourging, the soldiers often taunted their victim.

Medical Aspects of Scourging

As the Roman soldiers repeatedly struck the victim’s back with full force, the iron balls would cause deep contusions, and the leather thongs and sheep bones would cut into the skin and Subcutaneous tissues. Then, as the flogging continued, the lacerations would tear into the underlying skeletal muscles and produce quivering ribbons of bleeding flesh. Pain and blood loss generally set the stage for circulatory shock.12The extent of blood loss may well have determined how long the victim would survive on the cross.

Scourging of Jesus

At the Praetorium, Jesus was severely whipped. (Although the severity of the scourging is not discussed in the four gospel accounts, it is implied in one of the epistles [1Peter 2:24]. A detailed word study of the ancient Greek text for this verse indicates that the scourging of Jesus was particularly harsh. It is not known whether the number of lashes was limited to, in accordance with Jewish law.  The Roman soldiers, amused that this weakened man had claimed to be a king, began to mock him by placing a robe on his shoulders, a crown of thorns on his head, and a wooden staff as a scepter in his right hand.  Next, they spat on Jesus and struck him on the head with the wooden staff.1 Moreover, when the soldiers tore the robe from Jesus’ back, they probably reopened the scourging wounds.

The severe scourging, with its intense pain and appreciable blood loss, most probably left Jesus in a pre-shock state. Moreover, hematidrosis had rendered his skin particularly tender. The physical and mental abuse meted out by the Jews and the Romans, as well as the lack of food, water, and sleep, also contributed to his generally weakened state. Therefore, even before the actual crucifixion, Jesus’ physical condition was at least serious and possibly critical.

Crucifixion

crucifixion 3

Fig 3.Cross and titulus. Left, victim carrying crossbar (patibulum) to site of upright post (stipes). center Low Tau cross (crux commissa), commonly used by Romans at time of Christ. upper right, Rendition of Jesus’ titulus with name and crime Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews written in Hebrew, Latin, and Greek. Lower right Possible methods for attaching tittles to Tau cross (left) and Latin cross (right).

Crucifixion Practices
Crucifixion probably first began among the Persians.  Alexander the Great introduced the practice to Egypt and Carthage, and the Romans appear to have learned of it from the Carthaginians.  Although the Romans did not invent crucifixions they perfected it as a form of torture and capital punishment that was designed to produce a slow death with maximum pain and suffering.  It was one of the most disgraceful and cruel methods of execution and usually was reserved only for slaves, foreigners, revolutionaries, and the vilest of criminals.  Roman law usually protected Roman citizens from crucifixion, except perhaps in the ease of desertion by soldiers.

In its earliest form in Persia, the victim was either tied to a tree or was tied to or impaled on an upright post, usually to keep the guilty victim’s feet from touching holy ground.  Only later was a true cross used; it was characterized by an upright post (stipes) and a horizontal crossbar (patibulum), and it had several variations (Table).  Although archaeological and historical evidence strongly indicates that the low Tau cross was preferred by the Romans in Palestine at the time of Christ (Fig 3), crucifixion practices often varied in a given geographic region and in accordance with the imagination of the executioners, and the Latin cross and other forms also may have been used.

Copyright 1986, Journal of the American Medical Association

crucifixion 4

Fig 4.  Nailing of wrists. Left, Size of iron nail. Center, Location of nail in wrist, between carpals and radius. Right, Cross section of wrist, at level of plane indicated at left, showing path of nail, with probable transection of median nerve and impalement of flexor pollicis longus, but without injury to major arterial trunks and without fractures of bones.

It was customary for the condemned man to carry his own cross from the flogging post to the site of crucifixion outside the city walls.  He was usually naked, unless this was prohibited by local customs.  Since the weight of the entire cross was probably well over 300 lb. (136 kg), only the crossbar was carried (Fig 3).  The patibulum, weighing 75 to 125 lb. (34 to 57 kg), was placed across the nape of the victim’s neck and balanced along both shoulders. Usually, the outstretched arms.then were tied to the crossbar.  The processional to the site of crucifixion was led by a complete Roman military guard, headed by a centurion.3,11 One of the soldiers carried a sign (titulus) on which the condemned man’s name and crime were displayed (Fig 3).  Later, the titulus would be attached to the top of the cross.  The Roman guard would not leave the victim until they were sure of his death.

Outside the city walls was permanently located the heavy upright wooden stipes, on which the patibulum would be secured. In the case of the Tau cross, this was accomplished by means of a mortise and tenon joint, with or without reinforcement by ropes.  To prolong the crucifixion process, a horizontal wooden block or plank, serving as a crude seat (sedile or sedulum), often was attached midway down the stipes.  Only very rarely, and probably later than the time of Christ, was an additional block (suppedaneum) employed for transfixion of the feet.

At the site of execution, by law, the victim was given a bitter drink of wine mixed with myrrh (gall) as a mild analgesic . The criminal was then thrown to the ground on his back, with his arms outstretched along the patibulum. The hands could be nailed or tied to the crossbar, but nailing apparently was preferred by the Romans. The archaeological remains of a crucified body, found in an ossuary near Jerusalem and dating from the time of Christ, indicate that the nails were tapered iron spikes approximately 5 to 7 in (13 to 18 cm) long with a square shaft 3/8 in (1 cm) across. 23,  24,  30  Furthermore, ossuary findings and the Shroud of Turin have documented that the nails commonly were driven through the wrists rather than the palms (Fig 4). 22-24, 30

After both arms were fixed to the crossbar, the patibulum and the victim, together, were lifted onto the stipes. On the low cross, four soldiers could accomplish this relatively easily. However, on the tall cross, the soldiers used either wooden forks or ladders.

Next, the feet were fixed to the cross, either by nails or ropes. Ossuary findings and the Shroud of Turin suggest that nailing was the preferred Roman practice.  Although the feet could be fixed to the sides of the stipes or to a wooden footrest (suppedaneum), they usually were nailed directly to the front of the stipes (Fig 5).  To accomplish this, flexion of the knees may have been quite prominent, and the bent legs may have been rotated laterally (Fig 6) 
Copyright 1986, Journal of the American Medical Association

crucifixion 5
Fig 5. Nailing of feet. Left, Position of feet atop one another and against stipes. Upper right, Location of nail in second inter metatarsal space. Lower right, Cross section of foot, at plane indicated at left, showing path of nail.

When the nailing was completed, the titulus was attached to the cross, by nails or cords, just above the victim’s head.  The soldiers and the civilian crowd often taunted and jeered the condemned man, and the soldiers customarily divided up his clothes among themselves.  The length of survival generally ranged from three or four hours to three or four days and appears to have been inversely related to the severity of the scourging. However, even if the scourging had been relatively mild, the Roman soldiers could hasten death by breaking the legs below the knees (erurifragium or skelokopia).

Not uncommonly, insects would light upon or burrow into the open wounds or the eyes, ears, and nose of the dying and helpless victim, and birds of prey would tear at these sites.16 Moreover, it was customary to leave the corpse on the cross to be devoured by predatory animals.  However, by Roman law, the family of the condemned could take the body for burial, after obtaining permission from the Roman judge.

Since no one was intended to survive crucifixions the body was not released to the family until the soldiers were sure that the victim was dead. By custom, one of the Roman guards would pierce the body with a sword or lance.  Traditionally, this had been considered a spear wound to the heart through the right side of the chest — a fatal wound probably taught to most Roman soldiers.  The Shroud of Turin documents this form of injury. Moreover, the standard infantry spear, which was 5 to 6 ft (1.5 to 1.8 m) long, could easily have reached the chest of a man crucified on the customary low cross.”

Medical Aspects of Crucifixion

With a knowledge of both anatomy and ancient crucifixion practices, one may reconstruct the probable medical aspects of this form of slow execution. Each wound apparently was intended to produce intense agony, and the contributing causes of death were numerous.

The scourging prior to crucifixion served to weaken the condemned man and, if blood loss was considerable, to produce orthostatie hypotension and even hypovolemie shock. When the victim was thrown to the ground on his back, in preparation for transfixion of the hands, his scourging wounds most likely would become torn open again and contaminated with dirt. Furthermore, with each respiration, the painful scourging wounds would be scraped against the rough wood of the stipes. As a result, blood loss from the back probably would continue throughout the crucifixion ordeal.

With arms outstretched but not taut, the wrists were nailed to the patibulum.  It has been shown that the ligaments and bones of the wrist can support the weight of a body hanging from them, but the palms cannot.  Accordingly, the iron spikes probably were driven between the radius and the carpals or between the two rows of carpal bones, either proximal to or through the strong band like flexor retinaeulum and the various interearpal ligaments (Fig 4). Although a nail in either location in the wrist might pass between the bony elements and thereby produce no fractures, the likelihood of painful periosteal injury would seem great. Furthermore, the driven nail would crush or sever the rather large sensorimotor median nerve (Fig 4). The stimulated nerve would produce excruciating bolts of fiery pain in both arms. Although the severed median nerve would result in paralysis of a portion of the hand, isehemie eontraetures and impalement of various ligaments by the iron spike might produce a claw like grasp.

crucifixion 6

Fig 6. Respirations during crucifixion. Left, Inhalation. With elbows extended and shoulders abducted, respiratory muscles of inhalation are passively stretched and thorax is expanded. Right, Exhalation. With elbows flexed and shoulders adducted and with weight of body on nailed feet, exhalation is accomplished as active, rather than passive, process. Breaking legs below knees would place burden of exhalation on shoulder and arm muscles alone and soon would result in exhaustion asphyxia.

Most commonly, the feet were fixed to the front of the stipes by means of an iron spike driven through the first or second inter metatarsal space, just distal to the tarsometatarsal joint.   It is likely that the deep peroneal nerve and branches of the medial and lateral plantar nerves would have been injured by the nails (Fig 5). Although scourging may have resulted in considerable blood loss, crucifixion per se was a relatively bloodless procedure, since no major arteries, other than perhaps the deep plantar arch, pass through the favored anatomic sites of transfixion. 

The major pathophysiologic effect of crucifixion, beyond the excruciating pain, was a marked interference with normal respiration, particularly exhalation (Fig 6). The weight of the body, pulling down on the outstretched arms and shoulders, would tend to fix the intercostal muscles in an inhalation state and thereby hinder passive exhalation.  Accordingly, exhalation was primarily diaphragmatic, and breathing was shallow. It is likely that this form of respiration would not suffice and that hypercarbia would soon result. The onset of muscle cramps or tetanic contractions, due to fatigue and hypercarbia, would hinder respiration even further.

Adequate exhalation required lifting the body by pushing up on the feet and by flexing the elbows and adducting the shoulders (Fig 6) However, this maneuver would place the entire weight of the body on the tarsals and would produce searing pain.  Furthermore, flexion of the elbows would cause rotation of the wrists about the iron nails and cause fiery pain along the damaged median nerves.  Lifting of the body would also painfully scrape the scourged back against the rough wooden stipes. Muscle cramps and paresthesias of the outstretched and uplifted arms would add to the discomfort. As a result, each respiratory effort would become agonizing and tiring and lead eventually to asphyxia.

The actual cause of death by crucifixion was multifactorial and varied somewhat with each ease, but the two most prominent causes probably were hypovolemie shock and exhaustion asphyxia.  Other possible contributing factors included dehydration,  stress-induced arrhythmias, and congestive heart failure with the rapid accumulation of pericardial and perhaps pleural effusions.  Crucifracture (breaking the legs below the knees), if performed, led to an asphyxic death within minutes.

Death by crucifixion was, in every sense of the word, excruciating (Latin, excruciatus, or “out of the cross”).

Crucifixion of Jesus

After the scourging and the mocking, at about 9 AM, the Roman soldiers put Jesus’ clothes back on him and then led him and two thieves to be crucified.  Jesus apparently was so weakened by the severe flogging that he could not carry the patibulum from the Praetorium to the site of crucifixion one third of a mile (600 to 650 m) away. Simon of Cyrene was summoned to carry Christ’s cross, and the processional then made its way to Golgotha (or Calvary), an established crucifixion site.

Here, Jesus’ clothes, except for a linen loincloth, again were removed, thereby probably reopening the scourging wounds. He then was offered a drink of wine mixed with myrrh (gall) but, after tasting it, refused the drink. Finally, Jesus and the two thieves were crucified. Although scriptural references are made to nails in the hands,1 these are not at odds with the archaeological evidence of wrist wounds, since the ancients customarily considered the wrist to be a part of the hand.  The titulus (Fig 3) was attached above Jesus’ head. It is unclear whether Jesus was crucified on the Tau cross or the Latin cross; archaeological findings favor the former and early tradition the latter. The fact that Jesus later was offered a drink of wine vinegar from a sponge placed on the stalk of the hyssop plant1 (approximately 20 in, or 50 em, long) strongly supports the belief that Jesus was crucified on the short cross.

The soldiers and the civilian crowd taunted Jesus throughout the crucifixion ordeal, and the soldiers east lots for his clothing. Christ spoke seven times from the cross. Since speech occurs during exhalation, these short, terse utterances must have been particularly difficult and painful. At about 3 PM that Friday, Jesus cried out in a loud voice, bowed his head, and died.  The Roman soldiers and onlookers recognized his moment of death.

Since the Jews did not want the bodies to remain on the crosses after sunset, the beginning of the Sabbath, they asked Pontius Pilate to order erueifraeture to hasten the deaths of the three crucified men. The soldiers broke the legs of the two thieves, but when they came to Jesus and saw that he was already dead, they did not break his legs. Rather, one of the soldiers pierced his side, probably with an infantry spear, and produced a sudden flow of blood and water.1 Later that day, Jesus’ body was taken down from the cross and placed in a tomb.

crucifixion 7
Fig 7.Spear wound to chest. Left, Probable path of spear. Right, Cross section of thorax, at level of plane indicated at left, showing structures perforated by spear. LA indicates left atrium; LV, left ventricle; RA, right atrium; RV, right ventricle.

Death of Jesus

Two aspects of Jesus’ death have been the source of great controversy, namely, the nature of the wound in his side and the cause of his death after only several hours on the cross. The gospel of John describes the piercing of Jesus’ side and emphasizes the sudden flow of blood and water.  Some authors have interpreted the flow of water to be ascites or urine, from an abdominal midline perforation of the bladder.  However, the Greek word plvra, or pleura)  used by John clearly denoted laterality and often implied the ribs.  Therefore, it seems probable that the wound was in the thorax and well away from the abdominal midline.

Although the side of the wound was not designated by John, it traditionally has been depicted on the right side.  Supporting this tradition is the fact that a large flow of blood would be more likely with a perforation of the distended and thin-walled right atrium or ventricle than the thick-walled and contracted left ventricle. Although the side of the wound may never be established with certainty, the right seems more probable than the left.

Some of the skepticism in accepting John’s description has arisen from the difficulty in explaining, with medical accuracy, the flow of both blood and water. Part of this difficulty has been based on the assumption that the blood appeared first, then the water. However, in the ancient Greek, the order of words generally denoted prominence and not necessarily a time sequence.  Therefore, it seems likely that John was emphasizing the prominence of blood rather than its appearance preceding the water.

Therefore, the water probably represented serous pleural and pericardial fluid,  and would have preceded the flow of blood and been smaller in volume than the blood. Perhaps in the setting of hypovolemia and impending acute heart failure, pleural and pericardial effusions may have developed and would have added to the volume of apparent water. The blood, in contrast, may have originated from the right atrium or the right ventricle (Fig. 7) or perhaps from a hemoperieardium.

Jesus’ death after only three to six hours on the cross surprised even Pontius Pilate. The fact that Jesus cried out in a loud voice and then bowed his head and died suggests the possibility of a catastrophic terminal event. One popular explanation has been that Jesus died of cardiac rupture. In the setting of the scourging and crucifixions with associated hypovolemia, hyperemia, and perhaps an altered coagulable state, friable non-infective thrombotic vegetations could have formed on the aortic or mitral valve. These then could have dislodged and embolized into the coronary circulation and thereby produced an acute transmural myocardial infarction. Thrombotic valvular vegetations have been reported to develop under analogous acute traumatic conditions.  Rupture of the left Ventricular free wall may occur, though uncommonly, in the first few hours following infarction.

However, another explanation may be more likely. Jesus’ death may have been hastened simply by his state of exhaustion and by the severity of the Scourging, with its resultant blood loss and preshock state.  The fact that he could not carry his patibulum supports this interpretation. The actual cause of Jesus’ death, like that of other crucified victims, may have been multifactorial and related primarily to hypovolemie shock, exhaustion asphyxia, and perhaps acute heart failure.   A fatal cardiac arrhythmia may have accounted for the apparent catastrophic terminal event.

Thus, it remains unsettled whether Jesus died of cardiac rupture or of cardiorespiratory failure. However, the important feature may be not how he died but rather whether he died. Clearly, the weight of historical and medical evidence indicates that Jesus was dead before the wound to his side was inflicted and supports the traditional view that the spear, thrust between his right ribs, probably perforated not only the right lung but also the pericardium and heart and thereby ensured his death (Fig 7). Accordingly, interpretations based on the assumption that Jesus did not die on the cross appear to be at odds with modern medical knowledge.

 Crucifixion  (Video based on Dr. C Truman Davis’ research)

Act 1:3  To whom also he shewed himself alive after his passion by many infallible proofs, being seen of them forty days, and speaking of the things pertaining to the kingdom of God:

1Co 15:3  For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures;
1Co 15:4  And that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures:
1Co 15:5  And that he was seen of Cephas, then of the twelve:
1Co 15:6  After that, he was seen of above five hundred brethren at once; of whom the greater part remain unto this present, but some are fallen asleep.
1Co 15:7  After that, he was seen of James; then of all the apostles.
1Co 15:8  And last of all he was seen of me also, as of one born out of due time.

Luk 24:13  And, behold, two of them went that same day to a village called Emmaus, which was from Jerusalem about threescore furlongs.
Luk 24:14  And they talked together of all these things which had happened.
Luk 24:15  And it came to pass, that, while they communed together and reasoned, Jesus himself drew near, and went with them.
Luk 24:16  But their eyes were holden that they should not know him.
Luk 24:17  And he said unto them, What manner of communications are these that ye have one to another, as ye walk, and are sad?
Luk 24:18  And the one of them, whose name was Cleopas, answering said unto him, Art thou only a stranger in Jerusalem, and hast not known the things which are come to pass there in these days?
Luk 24:19  And he said unto them, What things? And they said unto him, Concerning Jesus of Nazareth, which was a prophet mighty in deed and word before God and all the people:
Luk 24:20  And how the chief priests and our rulers delivered him to be condemned to death, and have crucified him.
Luk 24:21  But we trusted that it had been he which should have redeemed Israel: and beside all this, to day is the third day since these things were done.
Luk 24:22  Yea, and certain women also of our company made us astonished, which were early at the sepulchre;
Luk 24:23  And when they found not his body, they came, saying, that they had also seen a vision of angels, which said that he was alive.
Luk 24:24  And certain of them which were with us went to the sepulchre, and found it even so as the women had said: but him they saw not.
Luk 24:25  Then he said unto them, O fools, and slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken:
Luk 24:26  Ought not Christ to have suffered these things, and to enter into his glory?
Luk 24:27  And beginning at Moses and all the prophets, he expounded unto them in all the scriptures the things concerning himself.
Luk 24:28  And they drew nigh unto the village, whither they went: and he made as though he would have gone further.
Luk 24:29  But they constrained him, saying, Abide with us: for it is toward evening, and the day is far spent. And he went in to tarry with them.
Luk 24:30  And it came to pass, as he sat at meat with them, he took bread, and blessed it, and brake, and gave to them.
Luk 24:31  And their eyes were opened, and they knew him; and he vanished out of their sight.
Luk 24:32  And they said one to another, Did not our heart burn within us, while he talked with us by the way, and while he opened to us the scriptures?
Luk 24:33  And they rose up the same hour, and returned to Jerusalem, and found the eleven gathered together, and them that were with them,
Luk 24:34  Saying, The Lord is risen indeed, and hath appeared to Simon.
Luk 24:35  And they told what things were done in the way, and how he was known of them in breaking of bread.
Luk 24:36  And as they thus spake, Jesus himself stood in the midst of them, and saith unto them, Peace be unto you.
Luk 24:37  But they were terrified and affrighted, and supposed that they had seen a spirit.
Luk 24:38  And he said unto them, Why are ye troubled? and why do thoughts arise in your hearts?
Luk 24:39  Behold my hands and my feet, that it is I myself: handle me, and see; for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye see me have.
Luk 24:40  And when he had thus spoken, he shewed them his hands and his feet.
Luk 24:41  And while they yet believed not for joy, and wondered, he said unto them, Have ye here any meat?
Luk 24:42  And they gave him a piece of a broiled fish, and of an honeycomb.
Luk 24:43  And he took it, and did eat before them.
Luk 24:44  And he said unto them, These are the words which I spake unto you, while I was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled, which were written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the psalms, concerning me.
Luk 24:45  Then opened he their understanding, that they might understand the scriptures,
Luk 24:46  And said unto them, Thus it is written, and thus it behoved Christ to suffer, and to rise from the dead the third day:
Luk 24:47  And that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name among all nations, beginning at Jerusalem.
Luk 24:48  And ye are witnesses of these things.
Luk 24:49  And, behold, I send the promise of my Father upon you: but tarry ye in the city of Jerusalem, until ye be endued with power from on high.
Luk 24:50  And he led them out as far as to Bethany, and he lifted up his hands, and blessed them.
Luk 24:51  And it came to pass, while he blessed them, he was parted from them, and carried up into heaven.
Luk 24:52  And they worshipped him, and returned to Jerusalem with great joy:
Luk 24:53  And were continually in the temple, praising and blessing God. Amen.

blessing 4

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