The Hebrew word for sun is שמש ‘shemesh’ which comes from the root word שם ‘shem’ which means ‘name.’ His Name = His Word (Revelation 19:13). As the sun moves through it courses, it teaches the Gospel.
In the Scriptures, the sun is likened to The LORD/Jesus.
Mal 4:2 But to you who fear My name, the Sun of Righteousness shall rise up, and healing will be on His wings. And you shall go out and frisk like calves of the stall.
John Gill commentary
shall the Sun of righteousness arise; not the Holy Ghost, who enlightens sinners, convinces of righteousness, and gives joy, peace, and comfort to the saints, but Christ: and thus it is interpreted of him by the ancient Jews, in one of their Midrashes or expositions (a); they say, Moses says not they shall be for ever pledged, that is, the clothes of a neighbour, but until the sun comes, until the Messiah comes, as it is said, “unto you that fear my name shall the sun of righteousness arise”, &c.; and Philo the Jew (b) not only observes, that God, figuratively speaking, is the sun; but the divine “Logos” or Word of God, the image of the heavenly Being, is called the sun; who, coming to our earthly system, helps the kindred and followers of virtue, and affords ample refuge and salvation to them; referring, as it seems; to this passage: indeed, they generally interpret it of the sun, literally taken, which they suppose, at the end of the world, will have different effects on good and bad men.
(a) Shemot Rabba, sect. 31. fol. 134. 2. (b) De Somniis, p. 578.
Keil & Delitzsch commentary
By the sun of righteousness the fathers, from Justin downwards, and nearly all the earlier commentators understand Christ, who is supposed to be described as the rising sun, like Jehovah in Psa_84:12 and Isa_60:19; and this view is founded upon a truth, viz., that the coming of Christ brings justice and salvation. But in the verse before us the context does not sustain the personal view, but simply the idea that righteousness itself is regarded as a sun. Tsedâqâh, again, is not justification or the forgiveness of sins, as Luther and others suppose, for there will be no forgiving of sins on the day of judgment, but God will then give to every man reward or punishment according to his works. Tsedâqâh is here, what it frequently is in Isaiah (e.g., Isa_45:8; Isa_46:13; Isa_51:5, etc.), righteousness in its consequences and effects, the sum and substance of salvation. Malachi uses tsedâqâh, righteousness, instead of יֶשַׁע, salvation, with an allusion to the fact, that the ungodly complained of the absence of the judgment and righteousness of God, that is to say, the righteousness which not only punishes the ungodly, but also rewards the good with happiness and salvation. The sun of righteousness has מַרְפֵּא, healing, in its wings. The wings of the sun are the rays by which it is surrounded, and not a figure denoting swiftness. As the rays of the sun spread light and warmth over the earth for the growth and maturity of the plants and living creatures, so will the sun of righteousness bring the healing of all hurts and wounds which the power of darkness has inflicted upon the righteous. Then will they go forth, sc. from the holes and caves, into which they had withdrawn during the night of suffering and where they had kept themselves concealed, and skip like stalled calves (cf. 1Sa_28:24), which are driven from the stall to the pasture. On pūsh, see at Hab_1:8. And not only will those who fear God be liberated from all oppression, but they will also acquire power over the ungodly. They will tread down the wicked, who will then have become ashes, and lie like ashes upon the ground, having been completely destroyed by the fire of the judgment (cf. Isa_26:5-6).
The LORD Jesus is likened unto the sun
Psa 84:11 For Jehovah God is a sun and shield; Jehovah will give grace and glory; He will withhold nothing good from those who walk in integrity.
Psa 19:4 Their line is gone out through all the earth, and their words to the end of the world. In them hath he set a tabernacle for the sun,
Psa 19:5 Which is as a bridegroom coming out of his chamber, and rejoiceth as a strong man to run a race.
Mat 9:15 And Jesus said to them, Can the sons of the bridechamber mourn as long as the bridegroom is with them? But the days will come when the bridegroom will have been taken from them, and then they will fast.
Isa 9:2 The people who walk in darkness have seen a great light. The ones who dwell in the land of the shadow of death, light has shone on them.
Isa 49:6 And He said, It is too little that You should be My servant to raise up the tribes of Jacob, and to restore the preserved ones of Israel; I will also give You for a light of the nations, that You may be My salvation to the end of the earth.
Isa 60:1 Arise, shine; for your light has come, and the glory of Jehovah has risen on you!
Isa 60:2 For behold, the darkness shall cover the earth, and gross darkness the peoples. But Jehovah shall rise on you, and His glory shall be seen on you.
Isa 60:3 And nations shall walk to your light, and kings to the brightness of your dawning.
Joh 8:12 Then Jesus again spoke to them, saying, I am the Light of the world. The one following Me will in no way walk in the darkness, but will have the light of life.
The sun is the greater light (מאור ‘ma’or’) which rules the day. Messiah applies this to Himself
Joh 11:9 Jesus answered, Are there not twelve hours in the day? If anyone walks in the day, he does not stumble because he sees the light of the world.
Joh 12:35 Then Jesus said to them, Yet a little while the Light is with you. Walk while you have the Light, that darkness not overtake you. And the one walking in the darkness does not know where he is going.
Joh 12:36 While you have the Light, believe into the Light, that you may become sons of Light. Jesus spoke these things, and going away He was hidden from them.
Joh 9:4 It behooves Me to work the works of Him who sent Me while it is day. Night comes when no one is able to work.
Joh 9:5 While I am in the world, I am the Light of the world.
There are 12 hours in the day (John 11:9) which again points to the body of Messiah, ie the 12 tribes. The Hebrew word for hour is שעה ‘sha’ah’ which comes from the watching of the arch of the sun to determine the hour. This is the origin of the gnomon/sundial which was mentioned above by Keil & Delitzsch (gnomen = nomen/name).
Interestingly, שעה ‘sh’ah’ (hour) is a cognate of ישועה ‘yeshuah’ which means salvation and is the origin of the name Jesus. Both words come from the root שע ‘sha’ which refers to a shepherd watching over his flock. On a deeper level, it is pointing to Messiah saving His bride at the ‘midnight cry’ (Matthew 25:6; Exodus 12:29).
The word שע ‘sha’ is referring to the shepherd watching over His flock. This relates to another Hebrew word ען ‘ahn’:
This is why the sun god is portrayed with an ‘all seeing eye’ as well as being related to the triangle/pyramid, which is in the same shape as the ancient Hebrew letter ד ‘dalet,’ which is the origin of the Greek letter Δ ‘delta.’ ד ‘dalet’ has the numerical value of 4 which relates to the 4th dimension of time, of which the sun is intimately connected. Further connecting to the Messiah, the letter ד ‘dalet’ means a ‘door.’
Joh 10:7 Then Jesus again said to them, Truly, truly, I say to you that I am the door of the sheep.
The sun, moon and stars were created to be shadow pictures of Messiah. As with all shadows of Messiah, the perversion/counterfeit of those pictures leads to the antichrist.
The sun, the eye, and the Son are all linked through the English etymology of the word ‘sun’.
The English proper noun sun developed from Old English ‘sunne’ (around 725, attested in Beowulf), and may be related to south (more on this below on the section on directions). Cognates to English sun appear in other Germanic languages, including Old Frisian ‘sunne’, ‘sonne’ (“sun”), Old Saxon ‘sunna,’ Middle Dutch ‘sonne,’ modern Dutch ‘zon,’ Old High German ‘sunna,’ modern German ‘Sonne,’ Old Norse ‘sunna,’ and Gothic ‘sunnō.’ All Germanic terms for the Sun stem from Proto-Germanic ‘sunnōn.’
The word ‘sun’ also traces back to the Latin word ‘sol.’
The English word ‘son’ has similar etymological roots to ‘sun’. Interestingly, it traces back the Old Irish meaning to give birth, in connection with the blinking of the eye, awakening and the rising of the sun in the morning.
The sun is further connected to the eye through the Hebrew word for the eyelashes.
Each blink/twinkling (1 Corinthians 15:52) of our eyes is a picture of the resurrection where we are gathered together to our Lord. The root of the word עפעף ‘aphaph’ is עף ‘aph’ which is a picture of a bird covering its chicks with its wings (Deuteronomy 32:10-11; Psalm 91:1-9). Each day when the sun rises it is a picture of the resurrection as well (Malachi 4:2). In Hebrew the word for dawn is שחר ‘shachar’ from the root שח ‘shach’ which means the pit. When the sun sets it is a picture of death/going into the pit, when it arises it is a picture of resurrection. When man awakens, his eyes are opened from darkness and sleep which is a picture of death (Job 14:13-15; Daniel 12:2-3; John 11:11-14) .
1Co 15:52 In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump: for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed.
1Co 15:53 For this corruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put on immortality.